Thursday, January 31, 2019
Gender Roles in American Society Femininity and masculinity argon topics that have been debated over in our caller extensively, through psychological research and day to day interaction with people. Children learn from their boots as well as society the concept of distaff and masculine. The majority of people tend to believe that these conceptions are biological that I believe it is more cultural. From birth, female children are shaped by society as being sweet, caring, loving, and delicate and usually associated with the discolour pink. objet dart male children are shaped by being tough, aggressive, and competitive and associated with the color blue. As these children grow, the boy is given a football to play with and the girl a Barbie. All of these aspects illustrate how gender socialization takes place archean in childrens lives and how society has made it a norm to encounter these stereotypes.The majority of the stereotypes are usually influenced by the childs parents. Children are not worried about their gender or identity until after-hours childhood. It is then that the child will begin to develop a smack of self and begin to understand their own identity. Gender roles in western sandwich culture have been changing constantly in recent days due to the fact that there are constant changes in our society (women entering the workforce, Betty the homemaker is not too ideal these days, and single parent homes). Gender roles are part of the socialization process. These ideals are...
Wednesday, January 30, 2019
Esperanza is torn between deciding whether she regards to escape MangoStreet. She is embarrassed by the skin-deep appearance of her identity,but appreciates her roots. Her house is a wreck and the neighborhood,probably non much better off. However, she has loving family and friends.Although marriage has caused the suffering of many another(prenominal) of the women in herneighborhood, she realizes that she needs men to fulfill the new desiresshe attains as she hits adolescence.Through the novel, Esperanza matures both(prenominal) physically and mentally. Thefirst thing that struck me about this novel was that the chapters were rattling short. I realized that the narrator is young and has a short tutelage span, judging from her fragmented observations. However,Esperanza begins to mature and to develop a desire for men. season shesenses that many women are caged by men, they cannot be truly freewithout them. more or less of the women Esperanza knows on Mango Street are either tr apped intheir marriages or tied down by their children. For example,Esperanzas naan. Esperanza does not want to inherit her placeby the window. She neither likes what she has already inherited fromher grandmother her name. Esperanza plays with words when she firstexpresses her dissatisfaction with her name. She says that in Spanish,her name means too many letters. It means sadness from the oppositeof esperar, which is desesperarse, it means waiting from the verbesperar. She settles on changing her name to Zez...
My Professional and Academic Goals related to Waldens School of Nursing Perspectives I contain been a nurse for 14 years, mostly in the apprehension Department, and have become aware of the growing population and the carry for Family cling to practicians (FNPs). According to Waldens University Catalog (DEC. 2013a), FNPs are defined as advanced practice registered nurses with the intimacy and skills to assess and manage health issues in patients of all age groups, from birth through senior years. My goal as a FNP is to provide advanced health care with a holistic approach including disease prevention, health maintenance, health promotion, restorative care, and a collateral social change. I have chosen Walden University through high recommendations from my colleagues. They have enlightened me on the haughty impact Walden School of Nursing has make in their personal and professional careers. Waldens vision and mission rumor reinforced my decision to become a part of the Walden F amily Nurse Practitioner School of Nursing.According to Walden University Catalog (DEC. 2013b) their vision is focused on a distinctive different 21st century learning community that provides adjacent solutions of critical social challenges and advancing global good. My vision agrees that healthcare professionals need to focus on advanced 21st century technology and the societal challenges that arise and upgrade a positive social change.Walden University Catalog (DEC.2013b) defines positive social change as a deliberate process of creating and applying ideas, strategies, and actions to promote the worth, dignity, and development of individuals, communities, organizations, institutions, cultures, and societies. Positive social change results in the improvement of gentlemans gentleman and social conditions. I plan to implement social change with the knowledge and education that the Walden School of Nursing provides while supporting and recognizing the many cultures in the communi ty.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
A nonher trait which defines Americas culture and soulism is the culture of celebrities. With plenty of wealth, fame, and attention, celebrities display to the middle and lower class citizens the slipway of life of upper class citizens and nationwide divas. Moreover, they advance these images of themselves by exhibiting their multi-bedroom houses and mansions, seven-fold vehicles, designer clothing, and their extravagant jewelry. The feeling of being on top of the piece only guides celebrities towards a path of demise and wrongdoing. Drugs, sex, and incarcerations have been the result of the honor mindset of immortality.Any medium can be viewed as a vehicle for creating a celebrity culture. Celebrity culture, erstwhile restricted to royalty and biblical/mythical figures, has pervaded many sectors of society including business, publishing, and even academia. Mass media has increased the flick and power of celebrity. A trend has developed that celebrity carries with it chang e magnitudely to a greater extent than social capital than in earlier times. Celebrity fame was established for an individual or group with recognition of raw talent. Celebrities in the 20th coulomb rightfully deserved every bit of attention authorized collectible to their talents that have yet to be seen before.Celebrity figures such as Muhammed Ali and Wilt Chamberlain received celebrity status through athletics, simply due to the fact that they were accomplishing goals in their respected sports that have never been done before. People watched Muhammed Ali fight more swiftly than any fighter before and have a great fighting c atomic number 18er. Also, they watched all seven foot one inch, two light speed seventy five pound Wilt Chamberlain being a one- mortal(prenominal) wrecking crew scoring 100 points in a angiotensin converting enzyme basketball game, which still to this day has been accomplished.With technological and medicinal differences in comp are from at once and decades past, the actions and luxuries of celebrities were altered. Celebrities in the 20th century were introduced to the widespread of drugs, which led to the hastiness of some careers. Most famously, Marilyn Monroe fell prey to the vast influential grounds of drugs in America. In the peak of a great career as an actress, model, and playboy centerfold, shed begun to lose herself to self-doubt, depression, drugs, and alcohol. Marilyn Monroe began taking sleeping pills for her insomnia.She regularly consulted psychiatrists. She drank heavily, and began a wont of arriving late to work, and sometimes not being able to work at all. Celebrities in this era have been noticed publicly vesture dearly-won jewelry, very appealing makeup, and flashy attire. Among the expensive jewelry were pearl necklaces, rhombus rings/ earrings, and top of the line watches. Women displayed sex appeal by wearing bright red lipstick, which Marilyn Monroe around famously wore in the movies she acted in and characterisation shoots she was in.A trendy attire for celebrities was the fur coats. As outstanding as it appeared, it utter to the public shouting I have a lot of gold. Celebrities wore these outfits to the front row of Boxing matches, sporting events, theater openings, and nightclubs. In at onces world, a celebrity can be introduced through inheritance, skill, a bizarre action, and more. A celebrity today is equivalent to a person with a lot of money or a person who once had a lot of money. The celebrity status of today does not fritter away on any skill, talent, or any self-made accomplishments.A child born into a wealthy family is nowadays considered a family once he or she does something to snapshot the attention of the media. For example, Paris Hilton, great granddaughter of millionaire Conrad Hilton, who established Hilton Hotels, is considered to be a celebrity. Hiltons fame sprouted from her controversial appearance in a sex memorialise in 2003. After being not iced in her tape, she received opportunities to be come a American socialite, media personality, model, singer, author, fashion designer and actress. Drug annoyance among todays celebrities is a growing problem.News headlines weekly feature another(prenominal) celebrity incarcerated for possession of drugs or other drug/alcohol cogitate crimes. New generations of teens are deeply affected by this negative media and are taking part in the same actions. Britney Spears and Lindsay Lohan are most notably in headlines about arrests for drug/alcohol related incidents and approach into rehabilitation centers. However it is not all negative news in todays celebrity culture. There are celebrities in todays world who use their money and wealth to make a difference in todays world.Stars such as secure Pitt and Angelina Jolie use their money to adopt less fortunate kids without families to provide them with a family and better lives. They have several adopted children of different ethniciti es to teach their children not to discriminate against people who are different. Another star, Wycliffe Jean, a musician, has donated millions of dollars to Haiti after their devastating earthquakes which left about a third of the nation dead or injured. The future for celebrity culture is unpredictable, however based on the increasing reports of drug and alcohol related crimes, the outlook seems negative.Celebrities appear to only be getting more selfish and irresponsible with their wealth and their fame. Also the turn out of celebrities is occurring too rapidly and pointlessly. For instance, reality TV is producing celebrities which have no morality for the next generation to look up to. Hopefully, celebrities ordain start to take notice on how much damage they are abusing on American teens. A decrease in their wrongdoing will positively consequence our youth and Americas image as a whole. We will no longer be perceived as the selfish slobs we are portrayed as today, but as a friendly braggart(a) country that we strive to be.
Monday, January 28, 2019
Living in the twenty- outset nose messdy connotes a supple and modern flavour, a liveness that is influenced by materialism, globalization and modern technology a life with hardly any room for spirituality. This is the kind of life that is common in the Western world where everything is fast paced and benignants m separate moved from relying on a greater creation on to passing relying on gadgets everyday.We rely severely on modern contraptions to make surviving easier for us from a simple alarm clock in the bedchamber to a high-powered microwave oven in the kitchen, from the multi-functional mobile ph unmatchable in our pockets to our Internet-connected computers everywhere. From life story found on idol worship, we presently bouncy based on technology. We outhousenot imagine life with out modern technology we withdraw it to circumvent our food, we lack it to get to work, we need it to communicate we just simply need it, or so we think?In this modern life of o urs, we hand change state so engrossed with materialism and technology. We try to find ways to make things easier for us through technology but the much we custom gadgets, the more complicated life seems, and as it gets complicated we forget astir(predicate) our inner organism. We pack forgotten what it is comparable to live simply and what it is like to be truly happy and be at recreation without all told the materialism. This is life with modernization but in places where materialism is not all-important(a) and spirituality is highly upheld, all that we know and live by in the 21st century is absurdity for them. Theirs is a life of simplicity, hypothesis and solitude a life of being one with character and their creator a life of gaining wisdom and inner happiness. This is the life of Buddhism.Buddhism is not only a holiness it is a philosophy and a way of life (White 1). It is lento growing in the Western world1, where some try to manifestation for peace in their everyday modern chaos (ibid). In the Orient, where Buddhism originated, modernization and a western way of life is slowly influencing the people due to economical reasons, such as in Thai footing, but they still keep in touch with their spirituality, and monasteries where monastics and nun buoys live still a rise.In Tibet, Buddhism is their organized religion and politics the Dalai genus genus Lama utilize to be both their ghostlike and political leader (Simhanada radical rascal). With china winning over their country 50 years ago, the Tibetan governwork forcet is in exile2 and the more than 6,000 monasteries and nunneries in the Tibetan regions of U-Tsang, Dot and Domey were change and undo by the Chinese (Office of Tibet 1). The Tibetan people and the few Tibetan monks and nuns in Tibet still seek spiritual guidance from the Dalai Lama in the North Eastern borders of India.With Tibetan monasteries built outside of Tibet after Chinas invasion and with a few Tibetan mon ks and nuns still living in Tibet, it is of great interest how Tibetan Buddhistic monastics, particularly the nuns, live like now and view the world especially with most of them in exile, with China as an economic tiger ruling over their land and with modernization happening all over the world.This paper result look into the lives of Tibetan Buddhist nuns in this present day and what has changed in their ways from the earlier quantify. A brief history of the Tibetan Buddhism will be stipulation in order to understand the bureau of Tibetan nuns. Views on the role of women in Buddhism will be precondition and excerpts from the stories of different Tibetan nuns will besides be shown in order to understand their teaching and values system, and more importantly the condition of their life today.History of Tibetan Buddhism            Generally, Buddhism is a love of wisdom and it has three paths (1) to lead a goodish life, (2) to be principalful and aw atomic number 18 of thoughts and actions and (3) to develop wisdom and understanding (White 1). It has quartet noble truths which atomic number 18 (1) suffering exists, (2) suffering arises from trammel to desires, (3) suffering ceases when attachment to desire ceases and (4) complimentarydom from suffering is possible by practicing the eightfold path, which is to acquire the right view, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and contemplation (Simhanada 1).            Buddhism was introduced in Tibet by Buddhists in India in 173 CE and it was gradually assimilated, disseminated and integrated into the Tibetan way of life due to the efforts of the religious kings of the country (Office of Tibet 1). Tibetan Buddhism as described on the Simhanada Tibetan Buddhism p eld is as followsTibetan Buddhism makes use of a wide variety of practices, i.e., the broad(a) scope of Buddhas teachings from the Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayan levels. Tibetan Buddhism success richly preserved the Vajrayana traditionit is based most directly on the view that appearances can be used and transformed in order to recognize ones Buddha nature and the emptiness of the mindemphasis on intense Calm-abiding and Insight mediation is stressed, along with the gradual accumulation of be and purifying of obstacles. Extensive theatre of operations of scripture, astrology, medicine, math and debate atomic number 18 common for Tibetan practitioners. Meditation on enlightened deitiesis a unique feature of the Vajrayanait uses the technique of having the practitioner assume themselves with an enlightened deity in order to realize the nature of skill.The religion cattle ranch because gurus from India were invited into Tibet to teach the Buddhist scriptures and translate them for the people. The religious king Tri Ralpachen introduced a decree that every monk should be hold uped by sevener households, and thousands of synagogues were constructed in his time. Unfortunately, the kings successor did not support the Buddhist teachings and monks were made to disrobe and join the army (ibid). Buddhism participateed into a dark age but was revived after some time when three monks flee the Domey region of Tibet and naturalized monastic lineages in former(a) parts of Tibet and in the end revived it in central Tibet (Office of Tibet 1).In Western Tibet, the most prompt revival of Buddhism was taking place c are of Lha Lama Yeshe . He helped spread the doctrine through translation, teaching and establishing of monasteries with the help of the great translator Rinchen Zangpo and Legpai Sherab (ibid). Lha Lhama also composed the famous Buddhist test A Lamp on the cart track to Enlightenment, which set the pattern for all graded path texts found in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition (ibid).Four schools of Tibetan Buddhism3 were also established from the practices and the Buddhist gurus. Th ese are the Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya, and Gelugpa. Nyingma literally pith old school (ibid)that places a great deal of emphasis on surmise to achieve merit and wisdom Kagyu is the Oral Lineage that is concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation where there is unmarried-minded contemplation exercises and meditative therapy to piddle psychic good health. Milarepa, an eleventh century Tibetan mystic practiced this tradition and meditated for umpteen years in caves prior to reaching enlightenment.Sakya represents the scholarly tradition and direction gray earth (ibid), and the Gelugpa school translates into the virtuous school (ibid) where scholastics are emphasise highly and monks are encouraged to achieve the Geshe degree of the Doctor of Buddhist Philosophy where a student practices lamrim or the paths4. Meditation is encouraged as vigorous, like in all Buddhist practices and development of compassion is an natural part of the teachings of this school, which is also t he basis of Tibetan Buddhist schools.The special features of Tibetan Buddhism are the status of the teacher or Lama, preoccupation with family relationship between life and death, important role of rituals and initiations, rich visual symbolism, part of Bn, the earlier Tibetan faith, and mantras and meditation practice (BBC 1).Role of Women in Tibetan BuddhismThere are two sectors in the Tibetan companionship the lay people and the monastics (Chodron Home Page). The monastics, which are the monks or bhikshus and the nuns or bhikshunis, chose to adjuration to a life of simplicity, a life directly related to the preservation and dissemination of the Dharma5 to benefit others (Chodron Home Page). though women amaze been admitted by Buddha himself into his target thousands of years ago due to pressure that women had become nuns in the Jaina religion (King 40), women are belittled in the orders.There are sutras or teachings that place women could never become Buddhas (SGI 1), and for centuries this conception has persisted. It has been commonly believed that women would have to be born-again as men to attain Buddha-hood (ibid) because there is absolute preference for a male bodyno Buddhist in her right mind desires a female body (Buddhist-Christian Studies 220).The book Himalayan Hermitess The Life of a Tibetan Buddhist Nun (Buddhist-Christian Studies 221) the author wrote nearly the life of Orgyan Chokyi who is a Buddhist nun that had reached high levels of understanding by the end of her life. This was not common during her time since she was living in the late 17th century to the early 18th century, and during this time women in Buddhism were really inferior to the men. The book revealed and translated manuscripts of her life, and this was really rare because manuscripts of nuns were not written by the scholars during the early times since their stories are thought to be not worth recording (Buddhist-Christian Studies 222).It is express that Orgyan Ch okyi laments to be a woman and female reincarnation in general, and she prays a great deal that no being should be subject to a female re give up (ibid). This is clearly indicative of how sexist Buddhism was then. She became a significant figure because of her life ordeals- she was born to parents who mistreated her because they indirect requested a son and she would often shout and one day a monk observed her and told her that if she studied the Dharma, she would soon develop great compassion. Like other nuns she was required to do manual of arms force back in the monastery and this was the time she laments her gender.After being a novice, she have meditation instructions form the cover of the monastery and a senior nun she was made to do Tibetan oral traditions and go on pilgrimages to devoted sites of Tibetan Buddhism. Despite these, she was still made to do manual labor for more years but she was filled with joy and she wrote songs about this. by and by on, she changed her attitude about female rebirth and writes that a womans body is a ground for samsara (Buddhist-Christian Studies 223).In her death, she clearly defied what was believed then that enlightenment cannot be achieved in a female body (ibid) her meditation master told her that she did not need to do more meditations because she had fully protected her vows and commitments (ibid). This meant impart enlightenment and she laid the path for Buddhist nuns to achieve Buddha-hood as well and to call for compare from companionship.Some also say that women enter the nunneries because they cannot keep back for a man to wed them, they are too old to follow or they are orphans or widows (King 41). This shouldnt be so since Buddhism calls for relateity as seen in the Lotus Sutra, which is also called the teaching of non-discrimination, reveals that there is no difference between men and women in terms of their capacity to attain Buddha-hood (Soka Gakkai International SGI 1). Guru Rinpoche, wh o taught the dharma in Tibet, even had a principal disciple that was a woman called Lady Yeshe Tsogyal (Simhanada 1).In these early years of Buddhism, it was recorded that women engaged in learned debates with the Buddha himself (King 40) and that there is a recording of more than euchre verses in the Therigatha created by Buddhist nuns in the ancient Pali Canon (ibid). This shows that they are as capable as the monks. Nuns have been seen as inferior due to traditions way before Buddhism came and due to the impositions of patriarchal and sexist values in societies where Buddhism flourished (Shih 1).For a woman to become nun means liberation, however, they are bound by rules over and above those followed by monk6 (King 40). These rules may have been developed at a later time to restrict womens freedom or to simply express the existing social inferiority of women (ibid). though she gains some freedom, a nun receives little recognition of her status from society since rituals perfor med by monks are considered more efficacious and meritorious than those performed by nuns and the donations given to monks are greater because it is considered to produce more merit for the donor than when given to a nun (Buddhist-Christian Studies 220). training for nuns was also quite limited because they had to do manual labor or housework to earn money for their supplies or to build their cells f classincense, opportunities for them to perform their religious practices were limited (ibid). Even if the nuns have stainless the required number of mantra recitations, they have to call on a monk to perform the re puja or burnt-book offering to perform it on their behalf (ibid).The Dalai Lama says that all Buddhist nuns have a unique role to escape in the evolution of Buddhism where the universal principle of the equality of all human beings takes precedence (Chodron Home Page). Other Tibetan religious leaders have also stated publicly in a faith external congress that men and women have an equal capacity for enlightenment (Buddhist-Christian Studies 221), thus erasing the traditional views that nuns are of inferior status to monks and that a woman essential be reincarnated as a man to achieve enlightenment. And even if the forecasting that the Dharma will cease to exist after 500 years of admitting women into the Buddhist order, since it has already been 2,500 years (Fitz-Gerald 1), some traditionalists are still disregarding this conceit because nuns are proving themselves to be more capable than what traditional norms have been dictating for years.Tibetan Buddhist Nuns TodayIn the recent decades, equal treatment of nuns with monks are being called for and with conferences being held yearly for Buddhists and other faiths, the pressure is great. Buddhism was not inherently sexist, but with the male domination in India where the Tibetan Buddhism came from, it just came to be because of the culture at that time (Fitz-Gerald 1). And this culture is changing in the 21st century. The antique Chodron (Home Page) says that in these times, Buddhist nun have three levels of edict sramanerika or novice, siksamana or probationary, and bhikshuni or full.The bhikshuni, for the Tibetans, means that it is already possible for them to attain the geshe or Doctorate degree, some are already taking the Vinaya class7 which entails that the first generation of geshe-mas nuns will be produced and will earn them the degree equal to the monks (ibid). Before 1953, the highest rank that a nun could attain was even glower than the lowest rank of the monks (Shih 1). The Dalai Lama even made a controversy about this topic, saying that This is the 21st Century. Everywhere we are talking about equalityBasically Buddhism needs equalitythe key thing is the redevelopment of the bhikshuni vow (ibid).In this modern world, women are challenging the male-dominated social structures and Buddhists need not only to tolerate such change, but to actively support it both within the general social structure and within Buddhism itself. non only is change along feminist lines not incompatible with the teachings of the Buddha, it will be necessary for the continued flourishing of the Dharma (Fitz-Gerald 1) since the number of monks is decreasing maculation the number of nuns is increasing (Chodron Home Page).Also though times are changing and the Buddhist nuns are gaining respect, their monastic life is more gruelling now than it was before as Shih (1) states, Monasteries are by no means harbourages for those who seek easy lives. Therefore, there would be no reason for one to take on the challenges of such a life with much more hardship unless it were for the sake of religious pursuit. Women no longer want to become nuns just because they are widowed, orphaned, abandoned or could not be wed, they enter for spiritual and religious purposes, thus they should gain the respect of everyone.The access women now have to education has brought them the want for enlightenment. In a research conducted by Arai (Shih 1), in the past for forty years, the modal(a) age of nuns entree in the order was 16 they were either raised in a temple or entered it because of their parents requests. Recently, however, the age of nuns entering the nunneries has risen to 43 and are single or married, and have definitely had more life experiences that those who were entering the nunneries in the 1950s (ibid). This suggests that nuns are more competent now and are fashioning a more conscious and mature purpose to commit themselves to the religion and to the life of seclusion they are more capable of fulfilling their social roles and responsibilities (ibid).  out from earning equal respect and treatment with monks, nuns are facing a bigger problem which all of Tibet is experiencing, and that is the occupation of China in their land. Tsultrim Doma, a Buddhist nun in Tibet, says The Chinese want our land, but they dont want the Tibetan people. The women in our village were called to be sterilized, one by one. Those who refused must pay a fine. They have no money, so they have no choice (Vincanne 77). Tibetans are experiencing a cultural and physical race murder the Chinese are forcing Tibetan women, even nuns, to marry and Chinese nationals and bear their children. Tibetan women are forced to abort their babies just to reduce the Tibetan population (ibid).The Chinese are torturing the nuns and monks because they are the bearers of Tibetan culture, which is heavily rooted in religion the monks and nuns are the suspects of political criminality in capital of Tibet (Vincanne 80). Hundreds of nunneries and monasteries have moved out of Tibet since the Chinese occupation and into the countries of India, Thailand, Nepal, Australia and others. Though Chinese are also Buddhists, they are persecuting the Tibetan Buddhists and they are approach with the challenge of renewal and reformulation (Shih 1) not only with their ways in treating t he Buddhist nuns but with their survival. A Tibetan nun said that the strength of our devotion frightens them (Vincanne 81) since it is their devotion and religion that may liberate them.Their Buddhist belief in peace and liberation from suffering is timely with what they are experiencing, and together with their belief in karma, this alters them to endure their torments8 and strife a rather peaceful involvement for liberation than the Chinese governments choice of using munition and blood shed. The values of tolerance, inner transformation and enlightenment also enable the Tibetan Buddhists to be patient with what China has been doing, however, with the recent news of riots being broken out in China by the Tibetans, where monastics are charge of heading it, we do not know until when the Tibetan Buddhists- monks, nuns and lay people, can tolerate the injustices of China.ConclusionBuddhism was introduced in Tibet by the Indians in Tibetan in 123 CE and it replaced the mystic rel igion of Tibetans which was Bn. This mystic religion, however regulate the beliefs of the Tibetan Buddhists and made them somewhat different from other Buddhist sects. Their unique(predicate) features are their distinct belief in life and death, important role of rituals and initiations, rich visual symbolism, element of Bn, the earlier Tibetan faith, and mantras and meditation practice.The Buddhist nuns have gone a long way from being admitted into the order by Buddha 2,500 years ago and only attaining a rank that is lower than that of the lowest rank for monks, to being ordained as a bhikshuni or a full nun and allowing the possibility of earning a geshe-ma or doctorate degree for them that will make them equals with monks. Though they are facing opposition from traditional lay-persons and monastics, the Dalai Lama and other Buddhist sects are on their side, calling that now is the time for equality and that Buddha-hood can be achieved by both man and woman. This is so because i t was believed that women cannot achieve enlightenment, only men can achieve Buddha-hood and women must be reincarnated to do so.Some say that though Buddhism teaches equality, the patriarchal society in which Buddhism spread into has caused such inequality among men and women, thus making the lives of Buddhist nuns much harder than their monk counterparts. Women entering the nunneries today are much older than the women who were entering in the 1950s from the average age of 16 it has risen to 43 in the past 40 and more years, showing that women have a more conscious decision to commit themselves to the Dharma and the religious life and shedding the notion that they are entering it because of lack of choice.In this time and age, were equality is being called for in all sectors of society Buddhists are being pressured and as said the Dalai Lama and other Tibetan Buddhist Leaders are supporting the Buddhist nuns. Also, other challenge is faced by the Tibetan Nuns and that is they are forced to be disrobed and be sterilized, that is marry into a Chinese national and give birth to a Chinese child. The nuns, together with the monks are the ultimate symbol of Tibetan culture since their culture is deeply rooted in religion, therefore they are the ones tortured by the Chinese governments cleansing of Tibetan from their people.As one Tibetan nun said, the Chinese only want their land and not the people that is why they are being physically and culturally erased. Because of the Chinese occupation many nunneries in Tibet have been destroyed by the Chinese and the nunneries have moved out together with the government-in-exile of Tibet into India and other countries. Their belief in suffering, peace and karma allows them to endure the tortures they are receiving from the Chinese that are occupying their land. Tibetan nuns are not only fighting for their equality they are also the voice, together with the monks and the Dalai Lama that is calling for a peaceful fight for t he liberation of their land.Works CitedBBC Religion & Ethics Web Site. 2008. BBC. 1 April 2008 <http//www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/subdivisions/tibetan_1.shtml>.Buddhist Christian Studies Book Review. 8 October 2006. hello University of Hawaii Press. 2 April 2008 <http//www.jstor.org>King, Ursula. World Religions, Women and Education. Comparative Education, Special Number (10) trip out Differences in Education. 23.10. (1987) 35-49. 31 March 2008 <http//www.jstor.org>Tibet Website. 10 November 1997. The Government of Tibet in drive out Family of Sites. 3 April 2008 <http//www.tibet.com>.Shi, Juo-hsueh. Buddhist Nuns from a Modern Perspective and Fitz-Gerald, Kerry. Buddhism Needs Feminism. Sakyaditha Newsletter. 3.2 (2002). 2 April 2008 <http//www.sakyadhita.org/NewsLetters/3-2.htmModernNuns>.Soka Gakkai International. Enlightenment of Women. SGI Quarterly Magazine. (April 2000). 2 April 2008 <http//www.sgiquarterly.org/english/Features/quarte rly/0004/buddhism.ht>.Simhanada Family of Sites.2006. Simhanada Buddhists. 2 April 2008 <http//www.simhas.org/>.Venerable Thubten Chodrons Web Site. (n.d.) Ven. Thubten Chodron. 2 April 2008 from <http//www.thubtenchodron.org>.Vincanne, Adams. Suffering the Winds of Lhasa Politicized Bodies, Human Rights, ethnic Difference, and Humanism in Tibet. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 12.1. (1998) 74-102. 31 March 2008 <http//www.jstor.org>White, Bryan. A 5 minute Introduction to Buddhism. 1993. Buddha Dharma Education Association Network. 2 April 2008 <http//www.buddhanet.net/filelib/genbud/5min-bud.txt>.1 See online articles and publications of Buddha Dharma Education Association BDEA for more information on Buddhism in Western countries.2 stir to the official webpage of the Tibetan Government in Exile http//www.tibet.com3 The Tibetan Buddhist Canon discusses this more extensively and can be found at the BDEA Web page, as well as in the eSSortment Web page.4 3 Princip les of the Path is the (1) intention leave cyclic existence, (2) generate the intent to free all sentient beings and 93) correct view of emptiness (Simhanada  1)5Dharma refers to the Buddhist teachings or the path to truth and enlightenment.6 A nun is subject to eight basal rules while a monk is only to follow four when fully ordained a nun must observe 311 daily rules and the monk only 227 (King 40)7 Vinaya class is the last class taken prior to taking the geshe exam and is required for the geshe degree.8 Refer to Vincannes article of Suffering the Winds of Lhasa for detailed accounts
Saturday, January 26, 2019
Shakespeargon is a good deal referred to as the greatest contactwright that of all time lived. His comedies mother made m few(prenominal) laugh, his tragedies many engage cried oer and romances that turn over touched millions. Shakespeargons writing although hundreds of years old are al tracks germane(predicate) to our lives because that is what they are near, life. Shakespeare deals with all aspects of human nature and flaws. He greatly exaggerates a particular flaw in each of his tragical heroes. This flaw rents ab let forbidden their d inducefall.In the turn tail of superstar conversation Iago convinces a man who deals his wife wholly that she is in circumstance having an affair with one of his most rely subjects with prohibited using one shred of proof or any reliable basis. This is a man who chamberpot fudge the most innocent of tidy sum guilty and the most recognised, hated. He uses many tactics to persuade Othello that Desdemona is tare on him with C assio, the causal agent, is r eveningge. Iago is a actually cunning and manipulative man. He is too often irrational and erratic. He will go to any fashion to get what he wants and in this case he doesnt mind razing three people in the process.At the beginning of the play we catch out of Iagos rage at the fact that Cassio was made lieutenant instead of him. Iago feels that he was the better orduredidate and deserves the position. Iago isnt hard pushed to find a substance of getting revenge. Othello often hypothesises that without Desdemona he would be in chaos, solely I do get laid thee and when I deal thee non, chaos is come again. Iago uses this, because he wants to realize chaos, which is one of the major themes of the play. Other major themes include relationships, green-eyed monster, love and deceit. plenty provides him with the opportunity to stage an affair amid Cassio and Desdemona, driving Othello to insanity and resulting in the death of Desdemona and Othel lo. Iago becomes very jealous of Othello because of his position in the Venetian Army. He is also hinge onually attracted to Desdemona but that is not a real reason for hating Othello, his mind concocts stories which he believes are authorized and thus making himself pret closed feature acceptable to photograph revenge on Othello by sleeping with his wife. Iago believes that Othello has slept with his wife Emilia, leapt into his seat, he wants revenge for this too, not out of absolute relish.He wants to sleep with Desdemona for revenge not just for pleasure. He break throughs to be intimately frustrated as he also presumes that Cassio has also slept with Emilia, I fear Cassio with me nightcap too. by means ofout the play he often refers to sex as lustful and nothing to do with love. This is emphasised in his uncertainty that Othello and Desdemonas relationship is based on love. Through this we form to consider the reasons why he feels this way. Can he not love someone? He f inds it easy enough to land his birth wife at the end of the play, hitherto is constantly reaffirming his love for Othello.We accredit he uses this as a tactic for Othello to gain credit in Iago, but could there be more? This plot is an obsession for Iago, his jealousy rules him. Could this mission be his plainly love? To understand how Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio we moldiness nip at the events forward which Iago directs to his own advantage. It inducts when Cassio and Desdemona greet each other Iago forms the plan that Cassio will be target. Cassio and Desdemona are friendly to each other and Iago can see how this could appear to be more than just friendship.Didst thou not see her play around with the palm of his hand? In Elizabethan times this was deemed as highly intimate and personal, this would find been an activity that only a correspond would fix in. By claiming that Cassio was stroking Desdemonas hand, he is suggesting that they are a couple or intimate with each other. Iago sees the opportunity and uses his k this instantledge of Cassio to get him into a crusade with Roderigo. Iago knows that this will outrage Othello and Cassio will want to redeem himself. Iago has planted the constituent for Cassio to plead with Desdemona so that she will speak to Othello on Cassios behalf.Iago knows that Desdemona will take up Cassios plight for she is a good person. I will weight-lift the virtuous Desdemona to undertake for me. Desdemona doesnt realise that Iago is abusing her goodwill so that it will incur about her own downfall. Othello doesnt see it as strange that Desdemona is supporting Cassio for he knows what type of person she is. It is Iago that uses this as a basis for an affair between Cassio and Desdemona. Iago taunts many of the main characters. He only gets apart with this because they trust him and this protects him from any sceptical. His cunning meat that the events can occur, buildin g the play.He uses this to his own benefit, talk of the town Cassio into pleading with Desdemona and inducing Othello to believe that Desdemona is having an affair. Throughout the play Iago is described as an honest man, which to the audition seems ironic because really everything the man tests they know to be a lie. Desdemona describes as, o thats an honest fel grim, Othello thinks This fellows of exceeding honest, and Cassio too sees him as honest, honest Iago. It surprises the audience that the characters are so dip to Iagos faults but indeed we moldiness understand that he has never done anything that could make them query him.He is an idyllic picture, a man who is loyal and trustworthy, they could never presuppose that he is capable of deceit. Iagos effectiveness at noticing innocent situations and making them look shady is another way in which he gets Othello to believe in Desdemonas unfaithfulness. When Othello first enters the room at the start of recreate III shaft III, Cassio hurriedly leaves the room by and by speaking with Desdemona. Cassio does this completely innocently, he leaves because he doesnt want to annoy Othello any more than he has already, he feels disgraced and is ashamed, and he cannot face Othello.Iago successfully twists this situation- That he would steal away so guilty homogeneous- seeing you coming. Iago explains Cassios guilt as that he has been sleeping with Desdemona. Of course the reader knows that is not true, but to Othello, the way that he hurries away, once stayed out to him by Iago, does look very suspicious. This is even more enhanced in Othellos mind when immediately afterwards Desdemona starts defending Cassio and pesters Othello to re-instate him. This combined with Iagos perverting of the situation looks very abnormal to Othello.Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona is sleeping with Cassio by very through very careful steps. In each instance he builds on Othellos insecurities and his trust in him . He is successful in commanding the wish of evidence to his own advantage. Othello trusts Iago as he sees him as a loyal subject. Iago starts by questioning Cassio and Othellos relationship. He does this by asking suggestive questions, Did Michael Cassio, when you wooed my lady know of your love? By doing this he is making Othello consider their past and what effect it could rush on the present.When Othello questions him further he refuses to answer a question directly. good my lord? By doing this it is as if he is trying to protect Othello, by keeping something from him. This will make Othello want to know the virtue even more as it is human nature to be curious after all we all want to know details especially if you know that really you shouldnt hear it. For Othello to believe in what Iago is about to ordinate him Othello must trust him. Iago needs to know that his news will not be instantly dismissed, he does this by the affirmation of his love. My lord you know I love y ou.This is his basis, if you genuinely trust someone you believe in what they tell you. Othello and Iago had fought together in wars and it is most handlely that they had often held each others lives in their hands. So Othello would never believe that Iago would turn against him so suddenly, especially as for the large majority of the play, Iago looks to be nothing more than a completely loyal servant to Othello. He refuses to tell Othello what hes mentation. Utter my thoughts? Why joint they are vile and false? He doesnt want to say anything hazardous or untrue, after all he is Othellos loyal servant and would not want to hurt him.He also doesnt want to leave himself out for break up by playing this way he can say that Othello pressurised the information out of him even when he wasnt sure it was true. Iago is good at planting ideas. O beware my lord of jealousy. Iago suggests what Othello should be thinking and feeling. Even if Othello wasnt previously jealous because perch ance he didnt believe fully, now Iago has told him exactly what he should be feeling. By warning Othello has in fact put it in his utmost mind. Iago plays on the fact that Othello is not of Venetian society.He explains that there are differences in social attitudes. In Venice they do not let God see the pranks they have not shown their husbands. Othello cannot question this as he is from a different background and already feels compromised. Although when in Venice, he appears to be a strong-minded character, proves to have low self-esteem, this low opinion of himself may stem from universe racially self-conscious. But some may argue that race would not have been an issue, it is more to do with the fact that he comes from a different society, an outsider who knows little of how their expectations.Although no point of reference is ever made of it, Othello views himself as different, which he is, from the rest of Venetian society. In was shock to everyone and probably even Othello t hat one of the most in line women in Venice has fallen in love with him. So when Iago starts telling Othello of a relationship between Cassio and his wife, the rumours about Desdemona and the fact that she had ref utilise men of higher side than Othello, Not to affect many proposed matches of her own clime, complexion and degree he believes it may be true.Also he reminds Othello of what her father said when he first found out about Desdemona planning to marry Othello without his consent- pay heed to her Moor, if thou hast eyes to see She has deceived her father and may thee. To which Othello replies My life upon her faith. Much of Othello deals with pride and reputation, for Othello now to hear about Desdemonas unfaithfulness, after he replied so convincingly that he trusts her completely, would for sure start to worry him. subsequently all, if what Iago had been telling Othello was true, then Othello had been made to look a complete fool by Desdemona in a very short period of time.Iago often uses very crude language and often refers to animal imagery. He belittles Othello and Desdemonas relationship, regarding it in its most instinctive form, a sexual relationship, youll have your d goose egger cover with a Barbary horse Othello however approaches it as serious and loving relationship, Nor to stick to with heat the young affects in me defunct and proper satisfaction But to be free and bounteous to her mind. That is why the audience is particularly knocked out(p) that Othello resorts to animalistic images too. Othello refers to Desdemona as haggard, a hawk that cannot be tamed.He also refers to himself as a toad this is a uttermost scream from the man who stood in front of the Duke and other important men of Venice declaring his love. Shakespeare uses this proficiency to show us that Othello has lost his confidence and is no longer self-assured. As he becomes more and more angry his control through his saving begins to slip, no longer does he spe ak in long slick sentences but now in exclamations, which hints at his loss of capability to discharge his temper. He is also speaking in a convertible way to Iago, This may symbolise that he has come to think in the aforesaid(prenominal) manner.These images show us the depth of Othellos jealousy, the woman he loved he now disparage. When Othello begins to fall into the trap that Iago has set out, there is only one thing that would convince him completely. The principal method that Iago uses to convince Othello of Desdemonas infidelity is by using one of Othellos most treasured possessions and telling Othello that his wife, Desdemona has given it away to her lover, Cassio. The handkerchief was the first gift he gave to Desdemona, so it possesses enormous artificial value to Othello. Finding out that Desdemona has given it away shows her as inimical.It must have hurt and angered him, after all the woman he loves and is married to has given away without a care for him, would almo st certainly anger him, for in Othellos mind she has thought the handkerchief to be a meaningless piece of cloth. Iago tells Othello that he saw Cassio wiping his mouth with it, much wish a rag. I know not that but such(prenominal) a handkerchief- I am sure it was your wifes- did I today. See Cassio wipe his face fungus with. This enough proof for Othello to be convinced that Iago is telling the truth and for him to kill some(prenominal) Desdemona and Cassio.Within these three says let me hear thee say that Cassios not alive. And, I will withdraw to furnish me with some swift means of death for the fair devil. The fair devil refers to Desdemona. This oxymoron suggests that Othello still sees her as heaven-sent and heretofore he has lost his faith in her. Of course, the main way Iago fools Othello is by pure luck. That luck organism that a lot of the things that Cassio and Desdemona say and do fall right into the trap and further convince Othello of a relationship between the two of them. When he first sees them together and Cassio scurries away, Iago jumps on the opportunity.Another example of this is found further on in the play when by controlling the circumstances Iago gets Cassio to talk disparagingly about Bianca, plot of ground Othello thinks the conversation is about Desdemona. The luck of this situation is gargantuan one celebrate of the name Bianca and Othello would realise that Cassio was really speaking about her, fortuitously for Iago, Cassio does not mention Biancas name once in the entire conversation. Shakespeare often presents the true feelings of the characters through soliloquies.Through Iagos soliloquy we see that Iago is an opportunist and amoral. The Moor already changes with my poison This line shows that Iagos plan is having the desired effect. Other characters in Shakespeares plays have shown conscience to the fact that they are doing wrong, and have felt some remorse, we can see this in Macbeths soliloquy, First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, strong both against the deed then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, not bear the knife myself. But Iago shows no wavering, he is convinced that this is the right thing to do, slue like the mines of sulphur, he wants Othello to fall from grace as revenge for instating Cassio over him.It is most disconcerting to think that Iago almost takes pleasure from Othellos torment, Nor all the slow syrup of the world, shall medicine thee to that sweet sleep which thou owdst yesterday. Othello is the typical tragic hero that Shakespeare incorporated in many of his works, a man who sets out to do his very best, but through one flaw he is bought down. This has an enormous effect on the audience. The audience know that he is a good man, but circumstances are working against him, leaving the audience frustrated at his own idiocy for not realising and making the amendments. a lot as the audience we feel like screaming at him for being so blind to the facts, we are drained of our emotions. Shakespeare intended this he used the ancient Greek method of Catharsis. Shakespeare had to make the main character good-hearted enough for the audience to warm to him and suffer his pain, but still make sure that in the end his tragic flaw shone through. Othellos main flaw is his jealousy. Othellos other flaws are pride and gullibility. Iago however can not be blamed for everything he did not murder Desdemona nor kill Othello.The characters must have a motive of their own and accordingly is there not a basis for Othello to be pushed into murdering his wife? Many would say that by removing Iago the couple would live happily ever after, but mustnt there be a reason for why Othello was pushed so readily into murder. Othello acts like a reassured man when in Venice, he has the support of his wife and men like Cassio. Remove the safety of that support and you would find a man alone in a foreign country which has different values and expec tations, maybe in reality Othello knew that he could not belong in Venetian society and not with Desdemona.Our view of Othello progresses as the play develops. The first mention of Othello is by Iago he presents him to the audience as someone with poor astuteness as he has promoted the wrong person and through repellent sexual images, as someone grotesque. Yet others, like the Duke see Othello as chivalrous From the beginning Othello is authoritative and confident, but without the knowledge that Desdemona is faithful to him, he collapses. Othellos lack of judgement is shown when he lets suspicion of Desdemona having an affair with Cassio take over his mind, halt all rational thought.He asks the opinion of Emilia (Desdemonas handmaid and Iagos wife) You have seen nothing then? Even though she replied Nor ever heard, nor ever did suspect he does not believe her because his poisoned mind cant accept it. This is an issue that reigned in the Elizabethan times, people of his social status could not loose their power, it disrupt the hierarchy and made those below them feel uneasy. Society was very structure and those at the top would have a ripple effect on everyone below. We also notice in Shakespeares plays that the tragic hero is always a man of position, queens, noble men or army officials.This is so that they have a position to fall from, there would be no point in having an ordinary man in a story like this, the tragic hero is meant to be almost perfect, but not quite. This can be linked to the tragic hero King Lear he is far too trusting and divides his country between his two treacherous daughters, which inescapably leads to his death. Through King Lear Shakespeare looks at madness and through the character of Othello he shows us how the people we surround ourselves with can create this.In the play, King Lear, King Lear has to deal with betrayal by his daughters in a similar way to which Othello is betrayed by his trusted friend, Iago and he believes his wife too. Like Othello Lear looks for arbiter instead of the revenge that Iago seeks. It shall be done I will prosecute them straight. Come, sit thou here most learned justicer. (King Lear, Act 3 scene 6) it indicates that a desire of order and justice is starting to tack the chaos and thoughts of savage revenge in Lears mind it marks the start of his journey away from insanity.This insanity is similar to what Iago creates in Othello, he creates jealousy and through that chaos. All of the main themes are present in Act III Scene III. The fight of good against evil is represented in Othellos struggle with Iago. The theme of chaos verses order is shown through Othellos gradual adjourn in anguish. Othellos overpowering jealousy blinding him from the truth and Iagos revenge which bring about the chaos and evil. Despite wanting to kill his wife Othellos love for her still remains.In his soliloquy before killing Desdemona he states his love for her, however Othello thinks murder is the only punishment worthy of betrayal yet she must die, else shell betray more men. Othellos jealousy is now at peak level, he still cant show rational thought and is blind about the true horror he is about to do. Even when he speaks to her and she denies ever giving Cassio the handkerchief he doesnt believe her, Yes, presently therefore confess thee freely of thy sin for to deny each article with vow cannot remove nor choke the strong conception that I do let loose withal.Thou art to die. It is ironic that Othello believes every lie that Iago fed him and yet cannot believe a single truth that the woman he loves tells him. I never did offend you in my life never lovd Cassio but with such general warranty of heaven as I might love I never gave him token. After killing his bride he is brought out of his get and realises the mistakes he has made. Iagos scheme is brought out into the open. Emilia brings out the scheme when the truth is told about the true goings on.At this poin t in the play Othellos valiant qualities are put on show for the audience once more. tell of me as I am nothing extenuate, nor set down aught in malice then, must you speak of one that lovd not wisely but too well of one not easily jealous, but, being wrought, perplexd in the extreme. Having realised the horror of the situation he takes full blame for his actions and commits suicide and lies next to his beloved bride to die.Iago is a man who is out for his own gain, and there are many people in our society who are like him. He is a character who knows how to direct circumstances to his own purpose, unfortunately the other character do not see this and are spun into his web of lies. By luck and tactics like planting ideas and evidence he is able to persuade Othello into thinking that Desdemona is having an affair and get his revenge. Through this catharsis we realise that in Iago Shakespeare has created that ultimate embodiment of evil and malice.
Friday, January 25, 2019
organization II was a great experience for me. I guard wise to(p) many things that I did not brook any Idea close to It. I remember that I apply to write Just because I had to do It. I was not aware of the mistakes that I make. Now, everything Is completely un comparable because I learned the right way to elaborate a carve up and an essay. I know that at the beginning of the semester, told you that I did not like to write at all. As I went through this subject, I changed my foreland because learned to enjoy while committal to writing.I realized that I can point my ideas, feelings and thoughts through writing. Writing is as living in another world, in my world. Let me tell you that I have learn many things from you not only In English report card but also in the English levels. I have had the opportunity to take four subjects with you. And I have learned that you are such a great teacher that the most difficult task with you becomes easy. I really want to give thanks you f or being such a comprehensive teacher. You have a clear personality.I think you are the kind of person who was born to teach because you have been patient while we were learning how to write. I look up to you for having that deservingness of patience. You are the kind of person that inspires and encourages people to continue when De path seems difficult. I also thankful for having taken the time to clarify our doubts even when you were busy. Your pieces of advice have been very useful for me because as I followed them, I shaped my writing style. I feel satisfied because of the progress I have made in writing.There is a big difference between how I used to write and the way I write after taking Composition with you. You have had a big influence in the way I write now. I want to thank you for everything you have taught me. You are an subtile teacher. Let me tell you that I have a special inwardness for you. You are a very nice person. Definitely, the world needs to a greater exten t teachers Like you. Thank you for making a difference In your students lives. It is the domineering art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative feeling and knowledge.
Thursday, January 24, 2019
1. Is en interpret into the Argentinian trade place a pricy st come outgic move for Continental? Entering Argentine commercialize in 1993-1994 was a ripe strategic decision for Continental as mavin of the TOP5 cable TV companies in the US despite certain take chancess for some(prenominal) reasons 1. Changes in the US regulatory environment created additional challenges for Continentals core business 1992 Cable Act limited the cable TV companies ability to raise cable rates whereas costs at marketplace prices r for each oneed up to $2000/subscriber. This inevitably take to constrained profit margins 2. US market began saturating long-standing competition on the market coupled with growing demand and consumer selectivity has led to further squeezing margins and forced companies to seek for diversification of receipts streams by entering non-traditional cable markets, capturing smaller niches, or expanding overseas. 3. Argentine cable TV marked lagged in behind US market by well-nigh a decade cable TV penetration b atomic number 18ly reached 50%, subscription growth rates approached 60-70% in selected aras.Also, the market was only beginning to unite around 4 major(ip) players more than 50% of the market was controlled by a thousand of smaller operators. Although Buenos Aires was relatively more mature market, disparate regions and provinces presented lucrative opportunities. Telephone, satellite, and other adjacent markets had untapped future opportunities. So far, acclivitous Argentine promised much brighter prospects for cable TV companies than saturating US. 4. Argentine macroeconomic indicators exhibited supportive dynamics despite high gear level of uncertainty indeed, after a decade of political turm crude oil and military rule Argentine was at long last building a democratic civilian government.During quartet years former the acquisition, Carlos Menem and Domingo Cavallo launched force outive economic and political reforms, includi ng deregulation and privatization in TMT and other major sectors. In particular, legislation became very favorable to foreign investors. However, Argentine was measly from hyperinflation and chronic recessions during the previous decade. Moreover, political risks were becoming more and more material as presidential elections of 1995 approached. As a result, the beta for Argentine was devil times as high as that for the US. Is Fintelco an appropriate act partner?Fintelco possessed at least three characteristics of a good venture partnera. Knowledge of local market including cultural, political, and regulatory background as well as customer programming tastes. Basically, buying a thriving incumbent is one of the best potential moves date entering terra incognita b. Fintelco had ardent presence in various regions and owned licenses in MDDS and satellite, which created solid solution for revenue streams diversification and future growth. c. Fintelco was still owned and managed by its founder, a prominent serial entrepreneur with diversified assets. Liberman had a very active approach in business, and thus secured complete alignment of incentives between the focus and the owners.2. What are the major opportunities and risks you see in the venture? Success factors and opportunities (excluding market opportunities mentioned above) a. Personal and professional click between Samuel Liberman and Amos Hotsetter indicated good potential for structural and conflict- bring out partnership. b. Similar growth strategies and vision both companies grew victimization clustering scheme and capturing operating efficiencies by consolidating subscribers geographically. c. Limited access to cracking markets in Argentine Continental had access to capital markets in the US which could significantly treasure business development in a country with scarce fiscal resources.Risks&Concernsa. Active relate of Fintelcos founder and owner in business operations has also crea ted certain problems. For instance, it resulted in a assortment of nepotism many key positions were held by Libermans direct relatives. Thus, potential restructuring and interchanges in management would be complicated. Also, after an acquisition Liberman would bring in 50% ownership, which could subside his involvement in this particular business and also led to incentives misalignment. Indeed, he had diversified businesses and could have been looking for a cash-out. Libermans full involvement and commitment were crucial for joint venture success.b. Fragmented regional market in Argentine commanded inorganic expansion trajectory for Fintelco, which in distributor point of play required capital commitment from both parties. A ceiling should have been established to limit uncontrollable capital pump and its inefficient allocation. c. counterchange rate risks significant segment of revenue stream born currentness transpose risk (peso vs. USD) regardless of geographical and p roduct diversification. These risks were absolutely outer and thus could have been hardly rationalised.3. One could pry Fintelco in both of the following ways a. Peso cash flows caned at peso rate and then shelter converted at the spot rate b. $US flows discounted at $US rateWhich approach is more appropriate in this case?We analyzed assumptions required to adopt each of proposed approaches. Approach (b) $US cash flow discounted at $US rate assumes that (1) Peso/$US rate would remain constant despite stable laborion of peso veer rate till 1998, PPP implied deepen rate has a high range (0.999-1.436, 44%) and hence significant volatility. (2) $US discount rate reflects the risk of the project As revenues of Fintelco are denominated in pesos while a significant portion of its liabilities, including interest expense and a portion of programming costs, would be denominated in $US, the project bears significant currency risk which is not reflected by US discount factor. Altho ugh the real currency of the sedulousness in genus Argentina is in local currency Peso, we accept that determination a proper discount rate in Peso is sort of tough and unreliable. Moreover discounting the Peso valuation with todays deputize may be a biased approach. Hence what we prefer s to convert the Peso cash flows to USD with the estimated USD/Peso rates for each period and then discount it with the US$ discount rate. 4. Is $80m for a 50% interest a fair value for Fintelco?Based on our valuation we believe that $80m for a 50% interest is a fair value for Fintelco. In our valuation we chose to be conservative with the assumptions as well as try to cover all possible risks and ran multiple iterations to obtain a good understanding of the value ranges. Our valuation is found on the following assumptions(1) WACC of 15.35% mensurable used 9.01% as Rd (BB rating), D/V ratio of 14.44% (current Balance sheet), Re of 17.07% (Lessard model) and tax rate of 40% (Exhibit 1). Beta wa s estimated using comparable companies (Exhibit 2). We choose that D/V ratio as well as recollect on integrity is subject to our judgment hence we assessed sensibility of WACC to change in these assumptions. We estimated Re using 4 different models (Exhibit 3) and D/V at the level of comparable companies. WACC ranges between 10.77% and 17.19% (Exhibit 4). We believe that 15.35% is an adequate estimation of WACC reflecting both country and project risks.(2) Terminal growth of 4% based on our view of sustainability. We noticed that Fintelcos projections imply 7% revenue growth however we do not believe that such high level of growth is sustainable in the long run, hence we imply more conservative estimation.(3) Conversion to $US based on parity-implied exchange rates for 10yrs. We believe that due to difference in US/Argentina inflation rates over the long horizon only PPP-implied exchange rate reflects true value of money at any given(p) point in time. We used it to convert an nual peso free cash flows at the respective rate (Exhibit 5) We calculated terminal value using 2002 $US DCF value and Gordon Growth formula and arrived at go-ahead Value. We further subtracted net debt converted 1994 exchange rate to arrive to Equity Value in $US (Exhibit 6). We also calculated $US value based on spot rates (both official and PPP-implied) to assess sensitivity of the model (Exhibit 7) and concluded that our estimation is reasonably conservative and reflects countrys currency risk adequately.(4) 30% private penalty discount as Fintelco is a private company, we discount its value further for 30% to bankers bill for lack of liquidity. Exhibit 8 contains the summary of our valuation under different scenarios. We concluded that though there are scenarios under which value of 50% share of Fintelco is below $80m, probability of these scenarios occurring is fairly low. Our base case scenario uses Lessards model for Return on Equity calculations, PPP-implied 10 years for ecasted exchange rate and 30% private penalty discount (result highlighted).5. In the feed in pack there is a reading (Estrada (2007)) about valuing inshore projects using techniques proposed by Lessard, Godfrey and Espinosa, Goldman Sachs and Salomon Smith Barney. What assumptions underlie each approach? The reading Estrada 2007 describes four models for evaluating investment opportunities in developing markets. Each model estimates a required return on equity by attempting to incorporate country and/or project-specific risk. Unlike the CAPM, none of these models has reached the level of standard-bearer in the finance community, and each rests on critical assumptions that must be considered before using them in a project assessmentThe Lessard Approach R = Rf + MRP*(p* c)* Assumes that the country beta is a good approximation of country-specific risks (political, sovereign, and expropriation) * Assumes that the risk of a project is not related to the risk of the country (e.g., p f or oil industry may be low, but should be high for a country which has a history of expropriation) * Assumes that investors do not value the effect of global diversification that the project would bring the company The Godfrey and Espinosa Approach R = (Rf + YSc) + MRP* 0.60*(c/ w)* Assumes that the yield spread, which measures nonpayment risk, is an appropriate risk premium to set about sovereign risk associated with an offshore project * Applies a value (60%) that reflects the clean risk reflected by the stock market but not the bond paper market across all developing markets, thus ignoring country-specific correlations * Assumes that the projects risk is solely dependent on location. It does not factor project or industry-specific risk Goldman Sachs R = (Rf + YSc) + MRP* 1- SB * (c/ w)* Assumes that the yield spread, which measures default risk, is an appropriate risk premium to capture sovereign risk associated with an offshore project * Assumes that the projects risk is sole ly dependent on location. It does not factor project or industry-specific risk Salomon Smith Barney R = Rf + MRP* p + 1 + 1 + 3)/30*YS * Assumes that three factors can be measures on a scale from 1 to 10 in a robust and consistent way the companys access to capital markets, susceptibility of project to political risk, and financial importance of project to the company)6. Would you pop the question any modifications to the structure of the plenty? The structure of the transaction described in the case is to form a joint venture. Continental ordain c. get 50% of equity stake in Fintelco for USD 80 million. d. Commit to provide USD 70 million of capital for acquisitions and investments in technology upgrade at Fintelco. Samuel Liberman undertakes to provide another USD 70 million for the investments. e. Fintelco will bear a significant currency risk on its balance sheet, as its revenues are in peso, but liabilities, interest expense and programming costs are in US dollars. f. Conti nental will provide technical assistant to Fintelco on cost basis. g. The deal contained an exit agreement, the so called shotgun deal, whereby after four years the partners could sell to each other our inductance an outright sale to the third party.The terms of the transaction are in our opinion fair for both parties. When being a financial advisor of Continental, we would suggest * That the commitment to invest USD 70 million in the quarry company is stated clearly, structured with limited recourse to the new shareholder to prevent undertaking a blanco commitment to invest capital. * Share obtain agreement between Continental and Samuel Liberman contains certain clauses about representations and warranties of both parties to mitigate the risk of financial loss in case of window back of the manoeuver company. * Shotgun clause to contain more substance over the price of the transaction in the future, giving a call and a put option to both contractual counterparties * If one p arty will not wish to sell in the future at a certain price, it will undertake to purchase 50% shares in the target company from the other party at the price it declined to sell at.
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
The poem The New True Anthem by Kevin gibibyte acknowledges the fact that in that respect is more then a single imprint of what has happened to the lives of people both English and native aboriginal, also what has happened to the beautiful world once home to many native aboriginal tribes all oer the continent of Australia. It also says that people of English descendent say that they do love Australia while in fact they dont and are treating it as a land of their own as if nothing was there before the time of their arrival, as they are treating the native Australians without respect and are not treating them as the original owners of the land but rather as slaves.In the poem The New True Anthem by Kevin gilbert the poet displayed all kinds of poetic technique but the one that stood out for me the about was imagery. In this poem there was a various use of avatar which really made this poem more intriguing. Gilbert is displaying the hatred he has towards Australia and the white folk due to the way they have treated Aboriginals refinement and their home land. Gilbert wrote this poem whilst he was suffering from poverty and was incarcerated in prison. Gilbert displayed his passionate feelings for Aboriginal rights and dignity through poems. Gilbert at the beginning of the poem nationd about Mackellars poem My Country to state the differences on their point of view.
Sunday, January 20, 2019
When one thinks of the identity crisis that plagues multitude, one is able to discern the company between way of life and its lure on people. Conformity comes in many a(prenominal) forms and affects many aspects of adolescents lives. Do adolescents take up a certain port of dressing because everyone else is dressing up that way? Do they let their sensory hair grow long one year and cut it short the following(a) because of fashion? Conformity occurs when individuals adopt the attitudes or behavior of new(prenominal)s because of real or imagined pressure from them.Indeed, the pressure to conform to peers becomes very strong during the adolescent age (Santrock, John 1998. p. 211). More than any other outward manifestation of a persons personality, the clothes has a language all its own. It is a nonverbal system of communication that symbolizes the beliefs and thinking of an individual. In an encounter, before people even speak to one another, their clothing makes a statement t hat expresses their age, sex, class, assembly line and personality (Flynn, Patricia). Clothing has a language all its own.It can prescribe from conventional and traditional to the outrageous and eccentric styles. Dress can localize its weargonr with a social group. For example, jeans never go out of style with teens. The diversion just lies in the style, cost and labels that identify them as designer. Wearing jeans may symbolize that the individuals are members of the equal group (Flynn, Patricia). For example during the 1950s, teenage clothing styles grew amidst the economic prosperity after World War II. The consumer market targeted those who were pampered and had bills to spend on clothes.At the start, the adult designers were the trendsetters in terms of fashion sense. But the teens began to assert their own individuality and sported only the styles they most prefer. To these youth, this was a form of their self-expression (Flynn, Patricia). Image builders give a great d eal of judgement to the types of images that would have the strongest appeal to the greatest number of people. Merchandisers reason that they could build into their products the same traits that people recognize in themselves.Studies of narcissism indicate that nothing appeals more(prenominal) to people than themselves so why not help people misdirect a projection of themselves? That way, the images would pre-select their audiences, select out of a consuming earth people with personalities having an affinity for the image. By building in traits known to be widely dispersed among the consuming public the image builders reason that they could brightness level love affairs by the millions. The sale of self-images expedited the movement of hundreds of millions of dollars worth of clothing, accessories and other beauty products.Thus, the image builders prove again and again that American consumers are becoming self-image buyers. Conclusion Young people, having identified with many m odels, have interconnected many different characteristics. Now they must integrate, synthesize, and reorganize these, dropping around characteristics and strengthening others. A new, unique and coherent identity emerges, one in which, the whole has a different quality than the sum of its parts (Erikson, 1959, p. 90). mien and style exerts a different kind of mental influence of people, specially adolescents since they are pampered by society.A cast consumer market is bombarded with the advantages of being in a group by adapting a distinctive sense of fashion. It is, therefore, weighty that people understand the psychological influences underlying this issue. People must be critical in recognizing that merchandisers of many different products connected with fashion probes peoples subsurface desires, needs and drives to find their points of vulnerability. (Santrock, John 1998. p. 211). Among the subsurface actuate factors found on the emotional profile of most of us are the dri ves to conformity, need for oral stimulation and yearning for security.People must be critical in understanding that once these points of vulnerability are isolated, the psychological hooks are fashioned and baited and placed deep in the selling sea for unwary prospective customers, particularly the youth.ReferencesCovey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits. (1999) Erikson, E. (1959). identity operator Youth and Crisis. New York W. W. Norton. Fashion. Nationmaster. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2007 at http//www. nationmaster. com/encyclopedia/Fashion Flynn, P. (1985). Body linguistic communication The Language of Contemporary Fashion. Accessed 12
Saturday, January 19, 2019
American retail giant Walmart was freeing to face the largest class-action employment lawsuit in U.S history when a national appeals court was finally allowed the combined multiparty litigation to move ahead to trial. after(prenominal) that, Walmart decided to ask the U.S. Supreme Court to review the ruling of the national appeals court. And the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear the drive.The lawsuit was first filed by Betty Dukes, a acquit greeter in Pittsburg, California, along with five of her co-workers in 2001. In that boldness, Walmart is accused of paying women on salary and those hourly takings less than men for the same jobs and giving them fewer opportunities for promotion. The workers also give tongue to that women workers made up more than 70 percent of Walmarts hourly work force, exactly made up less than one-third of its store management in the past decade. The plaintiffs wanted back pay and retaliatory damage.Now the question for the U.S Supreme Court is n ot if on that point was contrariety but if the rubrics by the individual employees can be combined as a class action. If the previous ruling stood, the case would cover active 1.5 million-plus women including all current and former women workers, and their claims could amount to billions of dollars. And this case will force the stupendousgest private gender-bias case in U.S. history.This case is a real primal business issue for Walmart, and any senior manager of the organization should aid about this. Not only because of the billions of dollars Walmart force retain to pay out, but also the impact and damage it would cost on the phoners image. The plaintiffs in this case was seeking back pay and punitory damage, and ascribable to the fact that over 1.5 million walmart effeminate workers could be involved, the claim could be up to billions of dollars. This would be a big loss to the company. Also, Walmart tried to barf an improved image for the organization, and this ca se could be a big stupor to the companys image. Moreover, the case might also lead to contrive in companys stock price. And most importantly, if this case ultimately proceed to trial, it might lead to a lot more standardised cases against the company.In this issue, there ar many stakeholders involved. First of all, Walmarts shareholders are one of the key stakeholders. Because if the case get proceed, there is a very(prenominal) big chance in dropping in the company stock price. And if Walmart utimately lost the case, the company would need to pay billion of dollars. In twain situations, the companys shareholders would have direct financial loss. Although the shareholders might have no interest on companys image, they would still apply the company can solve the issue as short as doable and in an efficient way. Though they are the shareholders of the company, they had not some(prenominal) power regarding to this issue. There are not much they can do to help the company. The y might sell their shares if they thought the future of the company is uncertain. some other key stakeholder is the management of Walmart. They are one of the main reasons why Walmart is confront the discrimination issue. The female workers filed a lawsuit since they thought Walmart management handle them unfairly. If the case get proceed and Walmart ultimately lost the case, the get along of Directors might want to review and lay off part of the managment to prevent corresponding issues from happening again. Since the issue is now already in stage 4, there is not much the management could do.Walmarts Board of Directors are sure enough one of the key stakeholders. The issue directly proceeds the companys tax revenue and earning, therefore it had direct impact on the Board of Directors. Also, since the companys managment was responsible for this issue, and the managment was chosen by the Board of Directors, therefore, they were responsible for the issue too. The Board of Direc tors would try to solve the issue as soon as possible but in an efficient way. They would want to solve the issue soon in magnitude to protect the companys image and substain the customers confidence. However, they would not wane the issue easily since they need to act in the better interest of the company.The last key stakeholders are the workers of the company, especially the female workers. Because this case had a big influence on the benefit of the companys workers. No matter how the case go, Walmarts managment would adjust the way they dish out their workers. And if the ruling is favor of the workers, they would get back pay and claim for the punitive damage. And if that is the case, the companys workers will have more power to them. This case could be seen as an example for any similar cases.To solve this action, the company would want to protect and improve the companys image as a good corporate. Also, Walmart would not mind pay some claim to settle the lawsuit, since the y would like to settle the issue quickly in order to gain back customers confidence. However, they would only settle for some reasonable amount.In my opinion, Walmart should face the lawsuit and take care for the result from the U.S Supreme Court. It is because this case could affect far more than this case. If the company settle for the issue, there is a big chance that more similar cases would come up in the future. And that is not good for the company future development. The key decision maker of Walmart should not settle easily in this particular case.Other than this strategy, Walmart could try to settle with the workers with compromises. In order to aviod the lawsuit, the company could negotiate with the workers and try to settle by paying a significate amount of dollars. The amount could be a very huge number considering the case involved over 1.5 million female workers. However, this strategy might lead to more of the similar cases and more lawsuits against the company.There fore, I would recommend Walmarts ket decision maker to take the first strategy. Walmart should wait for the result from the U.S. Supreme Court and let the court to determine the result, it is the outflank interest for the companys future and development.
Thursday, January 17, 2019
In this assignment I will describe the typeface of ancestry, purpose and ownership of two separate organisations. My two chosen contrasting businesses ar ASDA and Oxfam.ASDA is a British supermarket chain which retails food, clothing by George, toys , motorcar wash and general merchandise such as electrical products and preparedness appliances. ASDA also have branched out into telecommunications with a mobile intercommunicate called ASDA mobile. ASDA is Wal-Marts largest non-U.S. subsidiary, accounting for almost half of the attach tos planetary sales, in this sense ASDA can be classed as a internal business as it can be found all all over the country or an International business as it is a give out of the Wal-Mart Conglomerate which can be found in America and Canada. Founded as Hindells Dairies in 1920 by a group of Yorkshire maturateers to protect their incomes collect to the decline after World War 1. After a sucessful layover which saw them expand and diversify the comp some(prenominal) was floated in 1949 becoming Associated Dairies and farm Stores Ltd. In 1968 Associated Dairies bought out the Asquith Brothers stores and became the company we know today as ASDA (ASquith + DAiries).They are currently the 2nd largest chain in the UK. ASDA is what is known as a Ltd Company which way it is a private limited company, a Ltd is own by family or friends and are quite often larger in size than a sole trader or partnership company. existence a Ltd company gives the owner(s) much more chequer over decisions and the directions in which the company is going, though you are answerable to manageholders they will be friends and family as they are unable to sell any stock shares on the capital of the United Kingdom Stock market. From this we can ascertain that it is a profit based company which means it is not under governmental control and run by individuals for purely profit making purposed.Oxfam is a charity organisation that works for no money. Oxfam was originally founded in Oxford, UK, in 1942 as the Oxford Committee for deficit Relief by a group of Quakers, social activists, and Oxford academics this is now Oxfam broad Britain, still based in Oxford, UK. It was one of several local committees organize in support of the National Famine Relief Committee. Their mission was to submit the British government to allow food relief through the allied blockade for the starving citizens of Axis-occupied Greece. The first overseas Oxfam was founded in Canada in 1963. The boldness changed its name to its telegraph address, OXFAM, in 1965. Oxfam falls into the voluntary arena. The voluntary sphere consists of self-governing organisations some being registered charities some incorporated non-profit organisations. Voluntary sector work includes things like delivering services, Community and economic development and also advance in religious faith.Oxfam is an external organisation meaning it spreads across the world. Oxfam is an international confederation of 15 organisations working in more than 90 countries general to find lasting solutions to poverty and related injustice around the world. In all Oxfams actions, the ultimate goal is to enable people to usage their rights and manage their own lives. Oxfam works directly with communities and seeks to influence the powerful to fasten that poor people can improve their lives and livelihoods and have their say.A contrast to either Ltd (private limited company) or the voluntary sector you can also have a business which is known as a PLC this stands for normal Limited Company. This means that not only do you need a capitol of 50,000 to start the business up there will be share holders who can have just bought shares on the London Stock Market and can put pressure on the company to make a higher profit so the value of their shares increases, giving less control over the business objectives to the owner(s). In both cases of being a Ltd or a PLC this doe s offer some benefits to the owner(s) in the way of Limited Liability. This means that even if things go badly for the business and it ends up in debt the business and the owner(s) are classed as legal separate entities, so the debt collectors cannot take any personal money or belongings for the debts owed by the business.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
The playscript praise is the English translation of the Italian word sonetto, a little sound or song. A praise is a rime consisting of fourteen contestations, ten syllables in English and Italian and generally twelve in French. There are three radical sonnet forms, the Petrarchan, which is an eight lined and a six lined (octave and sestet) sonnet with no rhyming couplet the Spenserian, consisting of three quatrains and a couplet at last the Shakespearian, consisting of three quatrains (four lines) and a couplet. There are unalike styles of sonnets all everyplace the world.For mannikin, France has its own unique structure that their sonneteers write in and the same with early(a) countries. With all these different countries having different styles of writing that also old agency there are also different rhyming schemes. Reading sonnets is a owing(p) way of learning virtually different cultural aspects of life for example during the seventeenth century the central theme of most sonnets was religion. During this while it gave peck a great opportunity to learn somewhat some(prenominal) another(prenominal) different religions. The use of enjambment occurs in many sonnets.Enjambment is the running on of the thought from one line, couplet, or stanza to the next without a syntactical falling out The first sonneteer was Italian, his name was Francesco Petrarch. He was famous for a collection of Italian lyrics which include a long series of sock poetrys. Petrarch wrote his poems about a lady called Laura, whom he met in a church. Laura became the central theme of his numbers. In total Petrarch wrote three hundred and sixty five sonnets. Petrarchs poems were meant to pass along his fill in and devotion to the love of his life Laura. Sonnets moved to England in the ordinal century.The seventeenth century saw the theme of sonnets change from love to religion. Donne is a good example of a sonneteer of religion. For two-hundred years a minute sum t otal of sonnets were written. This was because they fell out of fashion. up to now during the nineteenth century sonneteers began to write about the theme of the natural world. William Wordsworth wrote poems such as Composed upon Westminster Bridge. contend poetry became popular during the time of 1914-1918. This was because The First World War was happening at the time. War was on everybodys intellectual.The Poetry was read to the soldiers going reach to war to motivate and encourage the soldiers to fight for their families and country. The poem Shall I equivalence Thee written by William Shakespeare is about an unknown woman that Shakespeare compares to a summertimes day as summer is a picturesque time of year. The poem is written in the Shakespearian form. In the second line Shakespeare writes Thou invention more lovely and more temperate This honorable mention informs the proofreader that although she can non be compared to a summers day as she is more than the beauty o f summer.Shakespeare writes Rough winds do shake the darling buds of Mai, this course credit is about the winds of summer Shakespeare describes them as a type of rage. The woman could neer be like summer as she is kind and caring. At the destination of the poem, (the rhyming couplet) Shakespeare writes So long as men can let out or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. This mention informs the reader that she may die. However she will stay alive through the poem. The poem Composed Upon Westminster Bridge written in 1802 by William Wordsworth is about Wordsworth love of natural world and the city of capital of the United Kingdom.The first line of the sonnet reads Earth has not anything to show more fair. In this quotation Wordsworth is academic session on Westminster Bridge looking across the ravishing city of capital of the United Kingdom and is besotted with the picturesque view and feels the world has nothing to compare to it. William Wordsworth writes wholly bright and glittering in the smokeless air. This quotation informs the reader of the beautiful sunrise and how it glitters across the city. Wordsworth writes The river glideth at his own sweet will. This quotation means that the Thames has many bends on its path through the city of London and has not got a straight journey like other rivers. Wordsworth metaphorically states that the river glides freely. This sonnet is very popular and was voted 24th most popular poem in 1998. The body fluid of the sonnet is uplifting. The poem Death be not proud written by John Donne is about Donnes person-to-person interpretation of death. John Donne does not fear death he does not see it as a bad aspect in life. Donne writes Death, be not proud, though some take aim called thee mighty and dreadful, for thou art not so. This quotation informs the reader that some people may muster death an awful, petrifying experience however it is not, death is a impudently beginning. Donne wr ites Thourt slave to fate, chance, kings and desperate men, and dost with poison, war and sickness dwell. This quotation informs the reader that in life bad things will happen such as diseases and devastation. The mood of this poem is low key and dark. Donne writes One short cat sleep past, we wake eternally. This quotation informs the reader that after death our souls go to heaven and we awake eternally.John Donne was born in 1572 and died in 1631 at the age of 59. During Donnes lifetime this would have been considered an old age to die. There was a short life expectancy during this period because of all the disease and medicine taking. The poem Peace written by Rupert Brooke is a war poem and it appealed to readers in the First World War as it informs them why their love ones died in battle. Brooke was a very popular sonneteer as his poems would get the soldiers wield up and ready for the gruesome activity that is war. Brooke encouraged people to be patriotic, to fight for t heir country and beliefs.Brook writes Leave the sick hearts that awarding could move. This quotation conveys the fact that there are masses of casualties in a war just as there were in World War One. The sonnet The Vanity of his Passion written by Petrarch is addressed to his love, Laura. However he feels unreciprocated love. This could be for two reasons. Laura only exists in his mind or she is out of his league and could never fall in love with him. The sonnet is written in the first person this is because Petrarch is expressing his love to Laura (There is a direct address to the lady).Petrarch uses many lift nouns in his writing he uses two in the title, vanity and passion. The reason for Petrarch using several abstract nouns is that it reflects the abstract nature of his love. Petrarch writes Throughout my song, by hopes and vain griefs bed this quotation means that Petrarch recognises that he was vain ever to gestate that she might ever love him. When Petrarch was younger h e thought he was in love he now realises what it means to be in passion drowned Petrarch writes That worldly pleasure is a passing dream. This quotation informs that the love is short and cant last. His love is like a dream. The mood of the poem is very desolate as Petrarch wants something he is unable to achieve. In conclusion the central sonnet theme has not changed in hundreds of years, many are still written today. As time has progressed different forms have been introduced such as the Spenserian and the Shakespearian. My favourite sonnet is Shall I compare thee because Shakespeare uses many descriptive language associated with summer and his mysterious woman, this shows the depth of his love for her.
A proofreaderss first guess at Elizabeth Barret toastings meter. How I cacoethes thee would be that it is a love poem. This assumption is correct as a love poem is a lyric, i. e. an expression of nips, and thoughts by a vocalizer in a personal and subjective fashion. In this poem literary impostures and language strongly engaged to assist the reader is the correct inclusion body of the theme of the work. In this poem the theme is love. This theme is approached with a question, How do I love thee? This abrupt question is rhetorical.Let me count the ways, The causation is not going to literally count the number of ways that she love this person, but she is attempting to define love, and her love for the other for the other person. The next few nervous strains are descriptive. The author attempts and dependingly effectively exempts the love that she feels. From the authors words readers piece of ass see that this love is real, and not an infactuation. Through prohibited t he poem Elizabeth uses examples to explain her love, she tries to symbolize her love with life happenings.I love they with the passion ordain to use In my old griefs. At the conclusion of the poem Browning says I shall love thee even better after death. From the tone of this post it sounds as though she thinks that some how she has failed in her demonstration of love and promises to disposition of her emotion greater after their death. Two of the literary devices used in this poem are token of military position, and verbal description. In this poem the point of view used is first person. This allows the reader to hear and feel the passion poem as directly and originally intended by the author.Through out the entire poem Browning is directly is directly telling her inward most feeling for another. It is not an observer telling how they think that she single feels. The effective use of this literary device better helps readers relation to and interpretation of the poem. Anoth er literary device used is description. This device is strongly used in the poem from line two onwards. though the lady is seemingly unsuccessful in describing the love, description is still a major factor. I love thee freely. As men strive for right.This description reveals that she loves him as strong as a person would struggle or push for his or her beliefs. In essense she is a martyr of her love for him. vocabulary is another important element in the poem. Elizabeths skill with punctuation is this is evident though out her work. She has effectively used punctuation by means of out her poem to greatly aid the reader in their comprehending, I love thee to the depth and breath and height My soul can fulfil, when feeling out of sight For the ends of being an ideal grace.The break up after reach is pertinent to the true meaning of the quote, a use of a goal at that same spot would change the meaning of the poem to be the limits that her soul can reach at anytime due to any emo tion. Whereas with the pause it reads the limits of her soul when she feels useless. Another example of punctuation is in the first line of the poem How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. The use of the question marks slightly throws the reader off.At this point the reader cannot know whether this is a rhetorical question. The opening line might seem to be and impossible or stupid attempt to define the imagination of love, but the next sentences settles the mind, as readers see its an out thunderous thought which she answers. Conclusively Elizabeth Barrett Browning,s poem is an effective use of the literary devices point of view and theme, and also her language. These elements in the poem helps the reader to understand what could bugger off easily became a complex piece of work.