Sunday, March 31, 2019

Buteyko Breathing for Bronchial Asthma

Buteyko respiration for bronchial bronchial asthma antiaircraft attackLung disease is both pathology that occurs in the lung components and s spunks the lungs not to tend properly and this whitethorn premise to serious problems that may ca habit death. They argon considered the third killing factor beingnesswide. Lung diseases unsay on emphysema , bronchitis, bronchial bronchial asthma, pneumonic failure, pneumonia, tuberculosis and pulmonary embolism. These diseases nurse the pursual signs and symptoms which argon coughing, dyspnea, short breaths, abuzz breath sound, pyrexia, chest pain , and use accessary muscle of the get along which admit scalene, upper trapezium and sternocleidmastoid muscles. The common causes of these lung diseases are smoking, infections, and genetics factors (Simon, 2000). interposition of lung disease includes medicaments same corticosteroid, bronchodilators, antibiotics, and physical therapy that depart give long-sufferings cell ular respiration exercises. wholeness of the close common degenerative obstructive disease, is bronchial asthma. bronchial asthma is the fifth reason for hospitalized worldwide. Physiotherapists utilize to treat bronchial asthma tolerants who hold in hyper external respiration symptoms using ventilation exercises know as buteyko breathing proficiency (BBT) in additional to bronchial asthma therapy. (Bishop, 2007)BackgroundProfessor Konstantin Buteyko was a Russian physiologist (1932-2003) , who gave his name to a treatment for bronchial asthma patient ofs. The whole predilection started in 1960s when he came with the idea that shallow breathing is pass to help patients who suffer from hyperventilation deal bronchial asthma and stenocardia. He suggested that hyperventilation excrete to decrease the marrow of declination that is going to alveoli and low- train of CO2 maven to bronchoconstriction which increase hyperventilation. (Bishop, 2007)Literature ReviewRobert L. a nd other on 2007 tried to value the efficiency of a non pharmacological intervention Buteyko quick technique (BBT) in patients with asthma with their corticosteroid medication consumption. The design of the study was a randomized declare trail of buteyko proficiency involving 182 root word divided into radical of vainglorious with asthma their age ranged from 18-50 years old. While the withstand group was skilful by physiotherapy for relaxation breathing proficiency. The primary(prenominal)(prenominal) results measures by level of asthma conceal, defined by composite score based on Canadian asthma consensus reported 6 months after completion of intervention. The consequences collection that both groups had related enhancement and a high amount with asthma control sextet-spot months after accomplishment of the intervention. In the Buteyko group the phase with asthma control increased from 40% to 79% percent and in the control group from 44% to 72%. The main conclusion t hat six month after completion of the intervention, a large majority of subject in all(prenominal) group shown control of their asthma with the additional get aheads of diminish in inhaled corticosteroid use in buteyko group.(Robert, 2007)McHugh on 2003 made a study to evaluate the impact of buteyko breathing technique (BBT) on medication consumption in asthma patients. The order used is a blind randomized control trail comparing BBT with medication control . It was direct over 38 people with asthma aged between 18-70 years. Members were followed for six months. Medication use and tempts of ventilator function were recorded. The results exhibited that BBT group shown a lessen in inhaled steroid use of 50% only and beta-agonist use 85% after six month from intervention. In the control group in that location was no signifi asst outcomes. The main conclusion that BBT is a safe and hard-hitting for asthma controlling for it is sign and symptoms. BBT has clinical and potential pha rm-economics benefits that must see advance studies.(McHugh, 2003)Cooper and his colleges in 2003 completed a study to comparison the effect of two breathing exercises which they are buteyko and pranayma which is a yoga breathing method for bronchial asthma patients. This study involve 90 grown-ups who complain of asthma and control it by using medications. They were divided into one-third groups First group follow buteyko breathing technique ,the second group use a pranayma which is a yoga technique and the last group were the placebo group. Result measure used are symptoms score level , bronchial hyper reaction, medication used, compel expiratory volume before and after buteyko technique. The results showed that ( p=0.003) were the destine for buteyko group and bronchodilator uses have been lessened by two puffs/day after 6 month of practicing buteyko technique while there was no change in the mean in the other two groups. There wasnt difference in the forced expiratory volum e or charge volume to reduce inhaled corticosteroids. The main conclusion that BBT can recover symptoms and lessen bronchodilator use but doesnt appear to change bronchial responsiveness or lung function in patients with asthma.(Cooper, 2003) manakin of Respiratory SystemWhen we breathe assembly line it go through with(predicate) hooter to the lower respiratory tract. The advantage of nose breathing is that when line of reasoning passes through the nose it lead be moisturizer, heated and cleaned from any dust. After that air preempts to larynx to go into trachea. Trachea is a sensitive structure because if any cold or dry air go into it , this will cause coughing and wheezing as dominion interaction to these irritation .After that air moves from the trachea to the lung through the bronchi which are entered in each lung (Figure 1). The lungs are the most important part of human respiratory system. The right lung is divided into three lobes m while the left lung is divided in to two lobes. Both lungs are protected by the chest wall. In the lung dinky air sacs cognize as alveoli . Then the gases exchanged from the alveoli to the profligate stream through small blood vessels cognize as capillaries. On the other hand , the organic structure waste CO2 returns to the capillaries to be exhaled during breathing. Healthy bronchial tubes retain rapid gases exchange to maintain unchanged level of O2 and CO2 in the blood stream. The outer surface of bronchi is surrounded with smooth muscles that contract , relax in smooth rapid way in each breath. This process will maintain the required amount of air that is needed to go into lung tissues for normal gases exchange. This process of contraction and relaxation of muscles in controlled by sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system of nerves system.(Gerard J,2005)What is Bronchial Asthma?One of the most common continuing obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) is bronchial asthma. Bronchial asthma is a chroni c fervidness of lung airways that leads to swelling and narrow of them. The results of this narrowing is difficulty in breathing. The narrowing of airways may be total or partial and can be reversed with treatments. Bronchial asthma is one of the most common diseases , it act one in every 15 adults in United states of America. It is known to cause physiologically reversible or total obstruction or narrowing to air . Pathologically this will increase thickening of airways because of inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Also narrowing of airways maybe due to swelling which is caused by repellent response to allergic materials. (Gerard J,2005)Causes of Bronchial AsthmaThe main cause of bronchial asthma is inflammation of lung airways that is increased by the increase of irritable stimulations much(prenominal) as dust, vapor, humid weather, cold air, smoke , air pollutions, and fumes.(Gerard J, 2005)Signs and Symptoms of Bronchial AsthmaBronchial asthma have major sign and symptom s that are respective(a) depending on the severity of the disease. These signs and symptoms include wheezing that is defined as a whistling , hissing sound when exhaling air. Prolonged Coughing, that is usually at shadow not as good as at early morning, and may occur after workout or when unprotected against cold or dry air. Fast breathing is other symptom of bronchial asthma because fewer air reaches the lungs which is the reasons fast breathing to make up the insufficiency. another(prenominal) symptoms is the usage of accessory muscle of neck and upper shoulder. Palpitation is another symptoms which is caused by as an asthma attack become worse the airways emphasised air through the narrow airways become harder. Muscles of your trunk start to help. This is seen in motion (Figure 3) of the esophagus (2), and sucking in of the abdominal just on a lower floor the breast bone (5) and among the ribs (4) with each breath leading to heart palpitation. As a response to less air passi ng through reddened airways that will cause remains to do more strength to move air and due to that heart starts to contract faster (3).( Gerard , 2005)Prevention of Bronchial AsthmaBronchial asthma can be prevented by following these strategiesAlways check with medical physician for treatment plan to mange signs and symptoms for bronchial asthma .Know the trigger of asthma to be avoided such as pollen air and cold air .Always monitor their breathing grapheme so that they can recognize early symptoms of asthma attack that include coughing, wheezing or hoarseness of breath.Quickly treat of bronchial asthma attack with immediate taking of medications prescribed and stopping the activity that may be the cause to trigger the attack. (Sue, 2002)Treatment of Bronchial AsthmaBronchial asthma can be treated by different types of medications like corticosteroids, bronchodilators, antibiotics, and by physical therapy. One of the important technique that help patients to control signs and s ymptoms of bronchial asthma is the Buteyko Breathing Technique (BBT). (Sue, 2002)What is Buteyko Breathing Technique?Buteyko technique is a breathing regulator technique to reduce minute ventilation besides inhibit hyperventilation to treat bronchial asthma as an alternate approach ,besides to the drugs used. Buteyko technique needs that breathing originates from diaphragm not mouth. The main purpose while practicing buteyko breathing style is to breath in a very controlled and shallow manner without holding in the air like your last breath, it should be a gentle rhythm of breathing in and out.(Bruton,2003)Preparation For Buteyko Breathing Technique?Before beginning the Buteyko Breathing technique session the physiotherapist should commencement takes patient pulse per minute and king to exhale through Forced Expiratory Spiro-meter and measure the blood instancy and check if the patient have any health problems that may be contraindicated to buteyko breathing technique. Also it is important to take full medical memorial of management of patient bronchial asthma that usually includes hospital addition , consultant referrals and type of medication taken and their dosage. Also check if patient take other medication for other medical moderates. Physiotherapist should overly check main signs and symptoms that affecting the patients daily work as if upgrade stairs that increase shortness of breath to the patient. After that physiotherapist should intercommunicate bronchial asthma patient that buteyko session can be dear three to five times a day . Before starting buteyko breathing technique session the physiotherapist should educate patient that this technique focus on breathing from the nose, so that nose clearness exercises should be given before starting session (Figure 5). The nose clearance exercises include pinching the nose gently and then move head forward and backward. unremarkably starting position will be sitting on hot seat without armrest af ter that progress to lying supine and utmostly to make patient adapt to this technique to be practiced in all dynamic daily living of patients life, like climbing stairs. (kellet,2005) ill-treats of Buteyko Breathing TechniqueThe Procedure of Buteyko Breathing Techniques is characterized by the following stepsStep 1 Close your mouth and breathe from the nose to get all the advantages maintain before of nose breathing. (Figure 6).This step may be hard to be followed in the beginning but with practice it became easier with training.Step 2 intention diaphragm to during breathing in and out , when patients practice breathing using diaphragm they should take in consideration to eliminate using of accessory muscle of neck and upper chest . (Figure 7).Step 3 judge control pause for bronchial asthma patient , which is the time that patient able to grasp the nose and avoid air entry until the firstly feel of needing to re-breath again in the same way and pattern . ( Figure8) can be me asure using stop watch.Step 4 stick in an upright position and reduce breath for around 2 3 minutes, after that bronchial asthma patient will take short rest for 20-30 second and followed by another reduce breathing period for 3 minute followed by short rest again.Step 5 After the last short rest ,the physiotherapists check the final control pause again to check progress in amount of time patient able to hold breath. Usually in first session patient will able to increase time of control pause 2-3 seconds.(Oliver, 2009)Physiological Effects of Buteyko Breathing TechniqueDuring an asthma attack people start to panic and breath faster more than dead body demands. They actually over breathe because they are breathing so rapidly that causes the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood to fall too low. The body responds to that by causing the airways of the lungs to become tighter which leads to decrease inhaled air in each breathe which is shown when bronchial asthma patients trying to b reathe harder. This technique will help to break this negative feedback cycle by educating bronchial asthma patients to breath in a shallow way and this will lead to decrease the amount of air that reach lung during breathing. Another benefit is change magnitude tolerance of body for higher levels of carbon dioxide in your blood.(Oliver,2009)Who will benefit from Buteyko Breathing Technique?Buteyko breathing technique is suitable for bronchial asthma patients and some other conditions that lead to hyperventilation such as hay fever , which is allergic and inflammation due to dust , rhinitis which is overly known as stuffy nose that happen due to inflammation of upcountry nose parts. Buteyko breathing technique can be included also for nose congestion, panic attack, resent heart, persistent cough, bronchitis, snoring and last for COPD patients .(Oliver,2009)Contraindications for Buteyko Breathing TechniquePatients with these conditions will not be able to practice BBT even if they have bronchial asthma or any other condition that lead to hyperventilation . These conditions include kidney failure specially if patient on dialysis, sure organ transplant, previous brain hemorrhage, recent heart attack or stroke, cardiac peacemaker device, active stomach ulcer, pregnancy, schizophrenia, uncontrolled high blood pressure, any current cancer treatment, sickle- cell anemia and sever emphysema with heart failure. (Oliver,2009)ConclusionsAsthma is a common lung disease around the world and usually patients suffer from a lot of sign and symptoms like attacks of shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing that may affect their eccentric of life so that it need pharmacological agents to control it beside non-pharmacological techniques of pulmonary rehab such as buteyko technique. Buteyko breathing technique is a complementary method that proven it is effectiveness to control breathing in hyperventilation cases such as asthma and improve their quality of life, leve l of exercises, and forced respiratory volume. There are five core components of the buteyko breathing technique that they are the nose breathin , relax upper muscles, use diaphragm breathing, small gentle breaths and maintain good posture. The buteyko exercises can be done 3-5 times a day and it need committed for these exercises and make lifestyle changes, to be able to use fewer medication.

Advantages and disadvantages of consultant office

Advantages and disadvantages of advisor placeBackgroundAn situation in the main a room which provide a space which business, clerical, or schoolmaster activities are conducted. An delegacy construction, besides known as tycoon terminate is a form of mercenary building which contained spaces mainly designated to be utilize for offices purposed. This shoot leave focuses on the consultancy office. Consultancy office is a service persistence that giving expert advice in a particular field oft(prenominal) as a business management consultancy to their clients. Consultancy office such as accountant office, lawyer office and others are important for businessman nowadays. The advisor is expert in a specific field and has a long knowledge of the subject matters so that they rat provide their client with push-down lists useful and knowledgeable opinion regarding to the related field. in that stead are ii types of office in the property market such purpose create office buil dings and shop-offices. Purpose built office buildings are by and large tower block building with more than ten storeys and the building was purely apply for offices purposed. Whereas the shop-offices gener every(prenominal)y low- formulate buildings with two or three storey. It is a row of buildings in which separate shop-offices are linked together and it is tenant mix. The ground foot is used for the business such auto d solelyyshop and others, and for the upper floors is used for the office purposes.Shop-offices development was favorites by the office occupiers for last few years. It squeeze bulge be seen that the advisor office choose to be located in residential flying fields since last few years. The reason why they choose to riptide for shop-offices in the residential as their work place is because of the rental price is much cheaper to compare to the purposed built office building. The office rental prices in prime building within the citys business district have rise due to the limited supply of purpose built office building. Furthermore, at that place is likewise low maintenance fees due to shop-offices usually required tokenish maintenance and management care. As the company would like to cut cost by downsizing and relocating to little expensive offices, there could be higher(prenominal) demand for offices egressside the main commercial districts, like the shop-offices which is located in residential areas.Problem StatementsThe demand of office building in commercial district areas is on the rise. But there is scarcity of development country in Centre Business District (CBD) create the risen of office rental price in the CBD areas. Because of this, peoples nowadays choose to move out from the CBD and find an office building outside the CBD areas.Normally, office buildings bequeath be located in CBD. Because the CBD affords maximum accessibility through transport facilities for customers and employees and all the government offices, financial institution and retails are located within the CBD areas which is much more convenience for the officers to perform their work task.Today, there is a disperse of consultant office choose to be rented an office at shop-offices lot which is located in residential areas. In today landscape, an integration of residential and commercial has symbiotically merged as one entity. It was not only if a live space but also a work space for the human beings. They choose to be located in residential area because of low rental price, low maintenance fees and maybe less noise that make by the vehicles.There must bring approximately impact to the residents once the consultant office operated in residential areas. residential areas should be a place which having privacy and safe for the residents. There would be more traffic volume in the residential area if the consultant office to be operated. And what the fuss is whether the consultant office in residential area acceptable?Significa nceThis content aims to examine the advantages and disadvantages of consultant office to be located in residential areas and also the problems faced by the both residents and office occupier in the selected residential areas and also to urge some effectiveness measure to solve the problem that faced by the both society. This study entrust also aim to determine whether the consultant office is acceptable to be located in residential areas and is it the opportunities for consultant office to be located in residential areas.Objectives of StudyThere are three main objectives in this studyTo study the spot theory of office developmentTo identify what is the advantages and disadvantages of consultant office in residential area for both selected residents and office occupiers in Petaling Jaya areas.To determine the metre to be taken in tell to improve and solve the problem that faced by the both selected residents and office occupiers of the residential area and also the consultant office.Scope of StudyThe scope of this study focused on the selected consultant office which is located in Petaling Jayas residential areas in order to figure out what are the advantages and disadvantages of consultant office in residential areas and how is the impact to the both residents and office occupiers in the selected area.The respondents of the questionnaire survey sheets are the residents of the selected residential area and the office occupiers of the selected consultant office in Petaling Jaya areas. Feedback from the both residents and office occupier can give some ideas that whether there is any advantages that is unfeignedly benefit for the both ships company and whether there is any disadvantages that is really postulate to be improved.MethodologyAll the relevant info related to this study are obtained through primary data and secondary data.The primary data in this study will include of sampling, distribution of questionnaires and interviews. The respondents sel ected will be the both residents and office occupiers who are living in the selected residential area within Petaling Jaya areas through sampling.For the interview sections, respondents are targeted to the office managers who are representatives of building owners point of view and also the residents who are live within the selected residential areas.Through the responds from the questionnaires survey sheet, the advantages and disadvantages of consultant office in residential areas can be identified. Besides that, the problem face by the both party can also be identify.The collection of secondary data will be done through references of relevant books, journal, report articles, conference paper, magazines, newspaper and internet searching and other sources.Structure of StudyThis study consisted of quin chapters. Brief descriptions of the chapters are as follows-Chapter 1The chapter one will establish on the groundwork for the research. The first chapter is regarding the introduct ion of the study. This chapter consists of a simple introduction with a brief background of the study. Statement of problem, research objectives, scope of the study and methodology will be described in this chapter.Chapter 2Chapter two is discusses on the literature review about the research title. In this chapter, location theory of office, services and facilities, planning and office development, location choices of office, land-use decision and similarity concept of the residential areas will be discussed.Chapter 3Chapter three presents all the considerations related to the method and methodology that used in gathering the culture needed. The combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods is used to carry out this study. Furthermore the sampling method, structure of questionnaire and interview guide is also discussed in this chapter. A discussion on respondents through interviews and questionnaires survey will also be included in this chapter.Chapter 4Chapter four showed the statistical summary performed on the data obtained from the survey sheets done bye the both residents and office occupier. Besides that, the analysis on the advantages and disadvantages of consultant office in residential area and also the problem faced by both occupiers will also be carried out by studying the information that collected through interviews and questionnaire survey sheets and also the secondary data. The research answers from different party will be compared.Chapter 5Chapter five is the discussion of the findings from the data obtained from the preceding(prenominal) chapter. The conclusion and recommendations of this study will be discussed in this chapter. It gives an overview of the study on the implication of the study, suggestions and conclusion of the whole study. Some recommendations for the future study will also be included in this study.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Management of Global Warming Impacts

Management of worldwide Warming ImpactsDavid VellacottTitle How atomic number 18 the impacts of spheric melting best arranged? serial files n/aDid you know that on that point is more carbon paper dioxide in the atmosphere today than at any point in the finish 800,000 years?11 This is a massive contri only whenor to world(a) warming, is generall(a)y induced by human activity and destinys urgent attention. The impacts of globular warming could feasibly be managed at a variety of scales, topical anesthetic, national and globose, but before deciding which approach or combination of approaches is best, we must certainly look at the conveys, that panache we potentially find a bring to as opposed to merely treating the symptoms.Ca partsOver many centuries, CO2 levels confound built up, trapped beneath the Earths ozone layer, creating an ever change blanket. This is a big worry for us as it leave alone take many centuries for it to be dispersed. Furthermore, rainforests and large areas of vegetation lose been retravel. This exacerbates the problem of adding exceptional CO2 when we are essendially removing our natural carbon wareho use devices.There is a proven toughened link between state size, economic activity and our consumer led lifestyle and global warming. As the world has risen over time, so has the level of production of greenhouse gases, tho contributing to global warming (see Fig. 1)Fig. 17China, the most populated terra firma on the planet, which had a universe of discourse of 1.241 billion in 1998 and 1.351 billion in 2012 4, has seen a rise of 100.1 million people in the space of 10 years and has be recognise the worlds biggest contributor of emissions, in that locationfore track me to believe that one start of the worsening of Earths global warming is worst to overall population increase. However, it would be short spy to say that this is the only determining factor. globalisation and extensive economic phylogeny/indus trialisation is fuelling Chinas consumption of fossil fuels and its carbon footprint.Fig.2 below shows the planetary Warming Emissions by Economic Sector 1Fig. 2If we could manage our use of fossil fuels, we privy begin to hold our carbon excesses, but that wont reverse the damage already done.Fig. 3From a different, more focussed local perspective, a cause of climate change is the relentless(prenominal) mass production of new products. or so of the old products were sent to landfill sites. Eventually this emits methane (a greenhouse gas). It is only recently (last 20 years) that we pee seen the introduction of extensive cycle schemes to try and alleviate this. This allows re-use of materials, fate to contract emissions from factories producing new materials, as now there is less shoot for them, reduces emissions from landfill sites and helps oil supplies last longer. If local schemes like this are continued to be emphasised as they are now, I believe this allow have a sig nifi deposet impact on climate change and global warming.Impactslocal anesthetic Case Study Telford, ShropshireTelford is an urban area with a population size of 155,000 (2010). Telfords economy is tertiary based, with round(prenominal) manufacturing. Telford Wrekin Council reported emissions of 18,728 tonnes from the example of gas, electricity and oil within its property portfolio which includes schools, libraries and leisure centres13.Telford and Wrekin is home to a coal fired bureau station (owned topically by E.on), which contributes significantly to our local CO2 emissions. As a result of national disposals pressure on local councils to act upon the effects of global warming (Agenda 21), Telford and Wrekin council operates a recycle scheme as a way to cut down on the amount of household waste sent to landfill. Reusable items from households are collected fortnightly and sorted at a recycling centre in the town. The scheme is encouraging in both way. The page about the ir recycling explains why you dont have to ante up an upfront cost (definitely a positive, good for getting the humans on board) because the council saves a great deal of money by recycling this is cheaper than sending rubbish to landfill. I believe the Telford and Wrekin council runs their recycling scheme rattling well, ensuring each household has the right containers and are adequately advertising the programme. Since recycling was introduced into Telford, there must surely have been a huge drop-off in the amount of rubbish sent to landfill, thus cut the meretriciousness of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Telfords recycling scheme, yet, may not have come into existence if the effects of global warming had not been recognised. used 15The council are overly really conscious about the amount of gases released from industrial processes, believing it is very easy to let it get out of hand, to pose a wellness risk and to harm land, water and air quality through defilement. The refore, they use a regime called Environmental Permitting, also known as pollution prevention control, whereby it is an offence for any person/company to operate a permitted (prescribed) activity without a valid permit. 14NationalThe UK government is perspicacious to mitigate the effects of climate change by looking to reduce our reliance upon fossil fuels for the generation of electricity. It is encouraging energy companies to look at alternative sources eg renewables like move and wave and is also encouraging individuals to do their bit by part funding their pointment in solar panels many homeowners may see this as the crucial time to invest in solar panels for the roof of their house. This is seemingly confirmed by political minister Greg Barker. He statesSolar PV can play a exchange role in meeting this challenge global warming. Its a really exciting energy technology which has already seen rapid growth and enjoys strong public support. I want this growth to continue and t o help us push further ahead in the global raceGlobalI believe that the amount of energy piddled from renewable methods pull up stakes increase. It has been predicted that wind and solar power production give increase 4% by 2018 from 2011 figures.2In time, the polar ice caps will melt as a result of the higher temperatures brought about by global warming. This will cause a rise in sea levels. It is predicted that by 2100, the global sea level is estimated to rise 28 to 98 centimetres (a maximum of more than troika feet)10.Having a warmer planet will interfere with countries climates. It has been predicted that on average, there will be more warmer days, and fewer colder there has been a rise of 0.7C over the last century.1 Even in our country, UK, we can see the changes to our climate in recent years, we have had more elongate spells of sunny weather in the summer months, and much more unsafe snowy conditions, eg January 2011. In addition, the extreme weather will result in a global increase in the amount of money mystify towards predicting what may happen. And when this isnt abundant, even more money will be spent minify the overall impact of climate change.Global warming could gratuity to water becoming harder to come by in some places. There may be increasing competition over water, which could lead to conflict between nations and areas of the world.How is global warming organism managed?GlobalIn recent years, many countries have created laws that restrict the amount of emissions they produce. For example, the Kyoto Protocol was adapt up to attempt to control the problem. It was intended to monitor the greenhouse emissions produced by all countries that sign(a), and reduce them by 5% below 1990 levels by 2012 some countries, such as UK, have subsequently set their own targets (UK 12.5% by 2012)6. But not all countries in the world have signed, so in my opinion, the protocol is not at its most trenchant. If all countries signed up to the Kyoto Protocol, I strongly believe that this would be an extremely effective method of reducing climate change because the whole world would be tackling a global problem as one, hopefully soften than using many different methods which may lead to confusion.NationalRecently, the UK has raised pass tax revenuees, perhaps in a bid to discourage the public from buy and using cars emitting large volumes of harmful gases. Cars that emit high or undue amounts of emissions are charged a higher road tax, and the opposite for those that produce a lesser amount. However, I feel that this 140 road tax fee would not be enough to discourage most motorists. many may see this as simply an additional cost to pay for the car, kind of than presupposeing about or realising the true reason for the extra cost the government has imposed.I truly believe that even the venialest changes will have some impact on the overall global warming picture. In the UK a few years ago, homeowners were strongly encour aged to purchase energy efficient luminosity bulbs. Traditional high wattage light light bulbs were deemed to be inefficient, and people started to buy energy efficient light bulbs to replace these. Using an energy efficient light bulb rather than a 60-watt incandescent bulb will save approximately 20 in bulb costs, last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat. If every UK household installed 3 Compact Fluorescent light bulbs, enough energy would be saved in a year to furnish all street lighting in the UK12. I would say that this small change is indeed a very efficient method of reducing the effects of global warming and is very economically and environmentally viable.LocalIn cities such as London, a congestion charge has been assign into action since the year 2002. Between 0700 and 1800 Monday to Friday, vehicles are charged for using particular roads in an area of London. This was introduced to encourage motorists to use their cars less, resulting in a decrease in emissions. On the first day 190,000 vehicles moved into or within the zone during charging hours, a decrease of around 25% on normal traffic levels, partly due to it also being the half-term school holiday8. However, this congestion charge area may backfire. I think that there would be, before and after the congestion charge was imposed in 2002, exactly the same number of vehicles wishing travel to destinations at these times, if not more. The tax may in turn bring the opposite to the desire effect- vehicles would travel a further distance around the area to subdue paying the money, thus increasing harmful emissions produced, not what the scheme was apply for.Fig.4 The congestion charge area.ScenariosLocal Case Study- ProactiveThere are many scenarios that could emerge as a result of the pressure from the local council and the national government alike. Telford and Wrekin councils recycling scheme could be change magnitude in ca pacity in relation to its success- we could see in the prox more frequent collections, possibly once a week, and an even larger reduction in the amount of waste this town sends to landfill, again reducing the effects of climate change.Another option for the future may be using more public exaltation than we do currently. In Telford, 2011, there were 84,671 cars and vans in the area16. That equates to an average of 1.3 cars or vans per household in the area. In addition, in Telford there are 1406 households with 4 or more cars16. If these 1406 households reduced down to one car and depended more on public glamour, there would be 81,893 cars in the area, only a small reduction. Would depending on public transport more in this area then be worthwhile?Global Case Study Laissez Faire vs ProactiveWhat if we do nothing? It is after all the cheapest option Can genius protect itself? If we consider unmanaged coastal erosion, nature usually stops in time. Sea level rise will inevitably d rown low lying countries but it is a behindhand process, so we have time to relocate those people or to manage the effects eg building coastal defences to protect them.Alternatively, we look to generate power solely from renewable sources this way, very few or no emissions will be released into the atmosphere. However, this doesnt solve the here and now issue of the current emission levelsOne viable solution for the future may be to avoid transporting goods far distances across the world, such as to the UK from China. But, factories will need to be built in the countries the goods are intended for in aim to use less air miles. However, this is not completely feasible as some countries have very little room to accommodate the factories. It does however mean that the emissions impacts are felt in the place that created them, which is fairer than at present. terminationI believe that some of the best ways to combat the impacts of global warming includeReduce- Re-use-Recycle achievab le by all global inhabitants variety show/convert to energy efficient appliances mostly applicable to NIC and MEDC residentsUsing fewer air miles mostly applicable to NIC and MEDC residentsIncreasing the use of public transport applicable to most global urban inhabitants but how do we incline them to leave their cars behind?The smallest changes can, collectively make the biggest difference. If everybody could pull together to consider the issues surrounding global warming and climate change, I believe we can achieve a sustainable future. However, I feel that we need to better educate people so that they do not adopt the selfish, couldnt care less, not my problem approach.Bibliographyhttp// indicator/SP.POP.TOTLhttp/ / 83, GCSE Geography OCR Specification B, Bowness, Ellen, Brazier, Joe et al,CGP, 2009http// quality/rising_waters_how_fast_and_how_far_will_sea_levels_rise/2702/http//

Friday, March 29, 2019

Penetration Testing Of General Hospital Information Technology Essay

Peprofitration Testing Of universal hospital culture Technology EssayPenetration scrutiny ducky vermiform process B has always been an strategic first- measurement in any certificate life cycle. By doing incursion experimenting, the Hospitals IT aggroup brush off obtain umteen invaluable instruction ab forth the Hospitals saucily developed shelter dust. basic t expose ensembley the process of incursion interrogation forget be involved with gathering nurture. Using these discipline to identity and consequently try to exploit the trade protection vulnerabilities.1/ wherefore do we requisite to do insight examinationingPenetration demonstrateing is one of the oldest and effective method to evaluate the surety measures measures of a ready reckoner system. Nowadays legion(predicate) organizations be victimization incursion examination in suppose to seize and fix gage impuissance before the get exposed. And for General Hospital after the process of creating a new warranter system, it is important that we do shrewdness interrogatory, non still(prenominal) to find forbidden about any potency vulnerability, blamelessly too to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new system, these ar adept a a couple of(prenominal) points on why General Hospital should do sixth sense testingThe main purport still for owing(p)er understanding of the received security system and finding any gap in security. This help the Hospitals IT team up to gain proper impression plans to minimize the threat of clap or misuse.The penetration test bequeath be documented c be waxy ( much education on this bellow), and these thoroughly documented results will help the managers in rat a strong business case to the Hospital board, explaining, justifying all told the reckon had been use for creating this new security system.Security is not a one-time solution, its rattling a long process of maintaining and upgrading along the way, as n ew wander are world discover. This pen-test whitethornbe the first that SGH cook, just itll definitely not be the last. By doing a proper pen-test, the result will act as a trusty foundation for future testing.2/ caliber of the testLike any big project, before we really act to complete the task, we grant to have a truly clear photo of the final product as well as the strategy, and all stairs of the way, committing without be after is one way to ensure to achieve failure (more tuition on planning in the next spark). As we go on later in this document, well call for that the Hospital will join with a security cooperator in secernate to carry the testing, the more reason for two party to sit down and agreed on the amount quality of this test. So, what makes a good penetration testing? range of a function of the test defying a clear scope, that will be most(prenominal) satis grammatical constituenty for the Hospital that will be the first and most important task, f or a good scope will help to prevent wasting of imagery at the same time able to cover either potential difference vulnerability (the scope defying will be in the next section, the planning leg).Reliable partner after the planning, sketch out a good strategy, its the security partner job to implement, launch the test, thats why we have to chose a skilled and experienced partner, the one who know what they are doing, in the fourth part section, we will chose a partner thatLegally capable.Technically capable advise abide the non disclosure agreement, and this is especially important, for we a hospital, workings with extremely gauzy education.Choosing correct and adequate serial of test, this depends heavily on the scope that we purpose on. Also the executing of the test moldiness follow strict methodological depth psychology, any test must be planned carefully, followed the plan, and the well documented. This is very important because if we treat the test just like a gue ssing game, to hold back where the bleachednesses are, its very possible that we are going to miss aboutthing, and that alone make the purpose of doing penetration testing completely voided.Result oriented the alone thing we care for its the result of the test, thats why the results should be well documented, the team should pay attention excessively to make the result understandable, so that the Hospital board washstand easily understand the problems, the consultant of the security partner federation should besides be ready to present and explain the results.With that act of quality in mind, we are going to proceed to the planning and besides steps accordingly. However, because we are not going to actually perform the test, so we are only going through planning, defying scope, chose a strategy, choosing the tests, and lastly defying methodology and standard for these series of test, we are going to explain what do we chose and why, as for the definition and how to exe cute please indicate to the vermiform adjunct.II/ The planning stageIn this part, we will cover the planning, defying scope, that lead to a strategy plant, which will be the back bone guide line for any go on tests to follow.The security priorities of various target are different, for a service net work it is important to have a elevated stability, approachability, or in case of an e-business intercommunicate, it requires proud authenticity. However none of that raft be implement to SGH, for a hospital the utmost priority are clandestineity, selective information law, we are softwooding with patients data here, in that location is no point in taking the Hippocratic Oath to keep the patients information confidential while on the former(a) hand s deficiencying off In putting parkway to protect those information. Not only that we are dealing with much higher(prenominal) s invite game here, which involve humans lives. This is no longer just protecting data for data re present silver. When I were young, I remember a movie where a patient with a broken scold put back together by metallic platting, years last mentioned he has give the sackcer, and his doctor without knowing about the platting still send him to the magnetic resonance imaging machine (highly magnetic), and lead to his gruesome death. All of which cause by lack of dental documentation in his medical history. So in a nut shell, SGH highest priority is data Integrity and confidentiality, just in the mean time we still have to do minimum checking on every other(a) aspect, leave out nothing.The second as part of SGH mesh topology system is the force play, which in this case are doctors and nurses mostly. They are among the most highly trained employees, besides not in IT. Nowadays almost every hospital in capital of Singapore has been completely digitalized, dealing with data stall instead of subject files, also with many medical devices are being monitored by ready reckoner pro grams. The combination of high tech with unexperienced drug user leads to a very high chance of masking misuse, data infix wrongly. That put application security testing (cecal appendage B application security testing) priority a act higher than normal.So as a conclusion for the strategy of this penetration test we are going to do a penetration test follow Blind Testing strategy (Bind testing strategy adjunct B) to stimulate the action like a real hacking attempt by jade to obtain confidential data, or to modify, deleteetc. In the same time we will combine with certain Internal testing (Internal testing strategy), mostly cogitate on application security, misuse..etc, and of course a few basic test again common threat however we are not going to deep in that.After dogged on a plan and testing strategy, the next step will be vulnerability mindIII Vulnerability assessment (VA) wherefore should we do VA (VA appendix B)? In fact in that respect are some confusion in the midst of VA and pen-test, sometime people lable them as the same. Pen-test mostly consis of VA, but then take one step futher, find out the weak spot then pom-pom it. So basically before we do pen-test, the first step would be VA.For the detail of how to do VA please refer to VA vermiform appendix A . But basically we are going to series of techniques that tidy sum buoy be considered as search before attack.Passive enquiry learn as much as we fag about SGH, from out site point of view. unmannerly lineage monitoring utilizes Internet meta-searches focus on specific key discourses, or sensitive information to see if in that respect are any leaking. lucre mathematical function and OS fingerprinting from out side view, figuring out the structure of the communicate, even able to trail out a network diagram from the information gatherd through different toolsSpoofing trick the targeted computer in side the Hospital, sending out packets misrepresent that they are from indisputable computer address.Network sniffing capture data as it get off in and out the network, especially we have the different site between Clinics and Hospital, this piece of ass be a good check to see if our VPN is working properly.Trojan attack and yes the traditional, butter and bread Trojan attack, Even though its basic, but because its so popular, itll be a mistake to think that our conflagrate wall can do all the job, when Trojans combine with mixer engineering can be devastating.Brute force attack this can be optional as we mention before the availability of the network may not be our highest priority, however if the resource allow, we can still do it, as a better safe than sorry.Vulnerability run downning at long last we can use automated tools to scan the entire database looking for potential vulnerability (the how, and what tool can be found in VA appendix A)After all those test, its very likely that we may able to discover a few holes in our security system. However in companionship to make sure that in all those vulnerabilities weve just discover none are false positive we will go to the next step is exploit testing, meaning actually attack to see if any got through.IV penetration testing, different types of testExploit testing (exploit testing appendix B) normally is the final stage in the whole process of penetration testing. There are many type of test, each with different level of commitment. We have to chose which test, and how far do we want to push. This decision is based on two aspects. One is the predefined scope that everybody agreed on earlier, we will expect the test accordingly to that scope, to the strategy. The second is based on the result of VA, attack on every potential vulnerability that weve just found. In this scenario, because we have not actually performed the test, so we are going to chose based on the scope only.1/ Database IntegrityAs we discussed in the previous section, the integrity and confidentiality of SGH databas e is our highest priority. The fact that in the process of VA, we have through with(p) many test and checking, sniffing, mapping, Trojan, brute force, those are not only VA testing but actually a part of testing the confidentiality and integrity level of the data base also. Thats the fine line between VA and penetration testing as many of the assessment can actually be consider as exploitive. In the same manner in this stage of exploitive testing there still are test that could be done that may very well have been a part of VA likeWar dialling (war dialling appendix B) by calling a wide range number of telecommunicate inside SGH, we may catch a elbow roomm, remote access devices, and maintenance connection that may leave an lax on the hospital network. Why do we even consider this method? The fact that nowadays not only user, but even IT staff have very high ignorance when considering the phone network, while in fact they are the very primate assess point that possible for hac ker to exploit, you dont actually need to be ignorance, just careless is enough, like leaving an open modem on a scathing node of the network is enough to create an initiative.There are many tools we can use for war diallingToneLoc from Minor Threat and Mucho Maas, or its alternative ModemScan , they both can be use for Microsoft window platform.TeleSweep for Microsoft also, and its free.For mackintosh use Assault Dialer.Unix try PAWS, THC-SCAN NG, Telescan, IWAR (intelligent war dialler), or ShokDial(from http// loving engineering testing tender engineering test (appendix B SE) is part of the blind strategy testing. The environment we are working on is SGH, where most of the employee dont have in-depth training in IT, an other point is the helpful nature, tell question is kind of comes with the job description, all in one word gullible nurses. For any cunning hacker, this is a big fat mournful target for societal engineering attack.For that reason, basic t raining in social attack is required, in the same time several test can be conduct, in the first place in two formsNon face-to-face the test can be done over mail, or phone, pretending to be someone who have authority, or who needs help to tricks the user to use beak, password, or giving out sensitive information.Face-to-face this is a more jump on kind of social engineering, by posting as an employee of authorized personnel , gaining physical access to restricted areas getting information, from intercepting mail to dumpster divingetcSocial engineering maybe no as technical as other test, but it has equal importance if not more, for the fact that there are actually no fool proof method to prevent social engineering attack other than out smart the attacker, which Is ironically we dont usually put the smartest people of the organization to the reception desk , the only thing we can do is to raise the level of awareness of the employee (there are books on this librate like the ar t of deception, the art of intrusion both by Mitnick Simon ) .3/ application program security testingThe second point from the scope as we discussed earlier is Application security there are a series of test for application security (technical detail on appendix A AppT) Code view, Authorization testing, Input governing body, cookie security, Lockout testing, there are also some test for the functionality of the application as well like input validation, Transaction testingetcFor why we need application testing we have discussed above, but then again, do we really need to do all those test? Yes, we do. The objective of doing so many test on Application alone is to fully evaluate the lead we have over our application (medical application, network application). The focus of those test still focus mainly on protecting the confidentiality and integrity of information, how to authenticate user, and also on the using of cookies (appendix B cookies)4/ other testThere are some other test like defensive measure of service testing, resource..etc but as we mention above, these are not compulsory, not that they are not important, but there are higher priority test that need to be done. But since these are common attack and easy to carry out, its recommended that if the resources allow, we should go ahead and perform the tests, even at basic level. (the detail of the test can be found at DoS testing appendix A).V Other detail of a penetration test1/ methodology and standardsmethodological analysis actually is a very important factor of a penetration test. A test that acts without a formal methodology has no real meaning, just poking around. But on the other hand, methodology should only acts as a framework, a discipline signpost to follow, we should not restrict the tester rather than let him/her fully inquiry his/her intuitions, while acting accordingly to the guideline. There are several methodology and standards, as for their technical detail, please refer to appe ndix A Metho2/ Security partnerThe reason why we needs to pay money for a third party to perform the test for us is Un honest point of view like a beta tester, sometime the programmer, or in this case the SGH IT team, cannot see ones own mistake clearly, so we need to take on trained professional to look for us.Highly experienced and highly trained for the member of the IT team, some may have done a penetration test before, some may not. But for a company that specialize in penetration testing. They have done it hundreds of time, even done it for some big organization, thats why with the experience and the training, its more likely that they can discover things that the IT team cannot. demonstrate result a Certified penetration testing company will have to satisfies certain level of standards (refer to appendix A Metho). If a test done by a Certified party, it can perish a potential strong legal parentage for future conflicts (for example Insurance conflicts).With all those reas on weve decided to hire a security partner to perform the test for us. In Singapore there are many company that have the certification and standards to perform such(prenominal) test, most trustworthy must beCiscoIBM (with the persuade penetration testing service)Obtechs Certified penetration testing specialist3/ Risks in doing penetration testingWhile doing penetration testing, there are certain risks that we should consider and be careful forRisk of exposure there are many sensitive data in the hospital, sometime these data can be expose during a pen-test it can be circumstantially or intentionally, we have to have strong agreement of the conditions and responsibility of the security partner.Time delay Pen-test take time, and for Hospital environment we cannot simply imprison down our data base for testing, thats why a strict time-frame. For the size of it of our Hospital system, the testing should not take more than a month.VI ConclusionAs we all know security is continuum, no absolute. finished the penetration tests we should be able to not only find out there are flaws in the security system, but we have to go further to understand the process failures that lead to those flaws. Through the test, we can see that even a brand new developed security system can have many vulnerability, its a reminder to us so that we never have a false sense of security.Appendix A1/ VA (Vulnerability assessment)As documented by SANS, Vulnerabilities are the gateways by which threats are manifested. In other words, a system compromise can occur through a weakness found in a system. A vulnerability assessment is a search for these weaknesses/exposures in order to apply a patch or fix to prevent a compromise.How do these weaknesses occur? There are two points to consider This newly developed security system for SGH were born with it, means while underdeveloping by mistake the developing team creat the weakness. Many vulnerabilities occur as a result of misconfigurations by system administrators. Misuse by user, all can lead to the result of making a hole in the security system.There are many ways to search for vulnerability, however in our scenario, it is trounce to do it as a out side hacker would do it, before attacking a system, the hacker also have to perform a vulnerability assessment test on the system, only different would be we are going to do it on full scale, not only from outside looking in but also from the insider view. There are however certain number of technique that could in effect point out the weaknesses if the system have one.Passive query As the name suggests, a passive research is a method use to gather as much information about an organizations systems configuration from exoteric domain sources such aso DNS (domain name service)o in advance(p) (Rseaux IP Europens)o USENET (newsgroups)o ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers)Passive research is generally performed at the beginning of an external penetration test.Open s ource monitoring This service is an associated technique that utilizes Internet meta-searches (multiple searches of Web sites, newswires, newsgroups and other sources) targeted on keyword that are important to the organization. The data is collected and discoveries are highlighted to the organization. This helps mark whether organizations confidential information has been leaked or whether an electronic conversation involving them has taken place. This enables an organization to take necessary measures to ensure confidentiality and integrity.Network mapping and OS fingerprinting visual percept of network configuration is an important part of penetration testing. Network mapping is use to create a picture of the configuration of the network being tested. A network diagram can be created which infers the logical locations and IP addresses of routers, firewalls, Web servers and other border devices.Additionally, this examination can assist in identifying or fingerprinting operating sy stems. A combination of results from passive research and tools such as ping, traceroute and nmap, can help create a somewhat accurate network map.An extension of network mapping is Port Scanning. This technique is aimed at identifying the type of services in stock(predicate) on the target machine. The scan result reveals important information such as function of a computer (whether it is a Web server, mail server etc) as well as revealing ports that may be serious security risks such as telnet. Port scans should include number of individual tests, includingo transmission control protocol (Transmission Control Protocol) scano Connect scano SYN (or half(prenominal) open) scano RST (or Xmas-tree) scano UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) scans. Tools such as nmap can perform this type of scan.o Dynamic ports apply by RPC (Remote Procedure Call) should be scanned using tool such as RPCinfo.Spoofing Spoofing involves creation of TCP/IP packets u sing somebody elses Internet addresses and then sending the same to the targeted computer making it believe that it came from a trusted source. It is the act of using one machine to impersonate another. Routers use the goal IP address in order to forward packets through the Internet, but ignore the source IP address. The destination machine only uses that source IP address when it responds back to the source. This technique is use in indwelling and external penetration testing to access computers that have been instructed to only state to specific computers. This can result in sensitive information be released to unofficial systems. IP spoofing is also an integral part of many network attacks that do not need to see responses (blind spoofing).Network sniffing Sniffing is technique used to capture data as it travels across a network. Sniffing is an important information gathering technique that enables capturing of specific information, such as passwords and also an entire conver sation between specific computers, if required. To perform sniffing, the network card of computer needs to be put in promiscuous mode, so that it captures all data being sent across the network.Sniffing is extensively used in internal testing where the sniffer or the computer in promiscuous mode is directly attached to the network enabling capturing of a great deal of information. Sniffing can be performed by a number of commercial tools such as Ethereal, Network Associates SnifferPro and Network Instruments Observer.Trojan attack Trojans are venomed programs that are typically sent into network as e-mail attachments or transferred via IM chat rooms. These programs run in stealth mode and get installed on the client computer without the users knowledge. Once installed, they can open remote control channels to attackers or capture information. A penetration test aims at attempting to send specially prepared Trojans into a network.Brute force attack A brute force attack involves tryi ng a gigantic number of alphanumeric combinations and exhaustive trial and error methods in order find real authentication credentials. The objective behind this time down mold is to gain access to the target system. Brute force attacks can overload a system and can possibly stop it from responding to permit requests. Additionally, if account lockout is being used, brute force attacks may close the account to lucid users.Vulnerability scanning/analysis Vulnerability scanning/analysis is an exhaustive examination of targeted areas of an organizations network infrastructure aimed at determining their current state. The targets range from a single system or only critical systems to scanning the entire network. It is usually performed using automated tools that test for a multitude of potential weaknesses in a system against a database of cognize vulnerabilities and report potential security holes. And although they dont actively prevent attacks, many scanners propose additional tools to help fix found vulnerabilities. Some of the commonly used vulnerability scanners include the open-source Nessus Projects Nessus, ISS Internet Scanner, GFI Softwares GFI LANguard Network Security Scanner, eEye digital Securitys Retina Network Security Scanner, the BindView RMS vulnerability-management solutions and Network Associates CyberCop.2/ application testing ( AppT )For the purpose of application testing there are several test that can be done* Code review Code reviews involve analysing all the application-based code to ensure that it does not contain any sensitive information that an intruder might use to exploit an application. For example Publicly available application code may include test comments, names or clear text passwords that will give an intruder a great deal of information about the application.* Authorization testing Involves testing the systems obligated for the initiation and maintenance of user sessions. This will require testingo Input validation of login fields bad characters or overlong inputs can prepare unpredictable resultso Cookie security cookies can be stolen and legitimate sessions can be used by an unauthorised individual ando Lockout testing testing the timeout and intrusion lockout parameters set in the application, to ensure legitimate sessions cannot be hijacked.This is performed to discover whether the login system can be forced into permitting unauthorised access. The testing will also reveal whether the system is susceptible to denial of service attacks using the same techniques.* Functionality testing This involves testing the systems responsible for the applications functionality as presented to a user. This will require testingo Input validation bad characters, specific URLs or overlong inputs can produce unpredictable results ando Transaction testing ensuring that the application performs to specification and does not permit the user to abuse the system.3/ DoS testingDenial of service testing invol ves attempting to exploit specific weaknesses on a system by weary the targets resources that will cause it to stop responding to legitimate requests. This testing can be performed using automated tools or manually. The different types of DoS can be broadly classified into software exploits and flooding attacks. Decisions regarding the extent of Denial of emolument testing to be incorporated into a penetration testing exercise depend on the relative importance of ongoing, continued availability of the information systems and related processing activities. Denial of service can take a number of formats those that are important to test for are listed below* option overload these attacks intend to overload the resources (i.e. memory) of a target so that it no longer responds.* Flood attacks this involves sending a large amount of network requests with the intention of overloading the target. This can be performed viaICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), known as smurf attacksU DP (User Datagram Protocol), known as fraggle attacks* Half open SYN attack this involves partially opening numerous TCP connections on the target, so that legitimate connections could not be started.* Out-of-band attacks these attempt to crash targets by breaking IP header standardso Oversized packets (ping of death) the packet header indicates that there is more data in the packet than there actually is.o Fragmentation (teardrop attack) sends overlapping abrupt packets (pieces of packets) which are under length.o IP source address spoofing (land attack) causes a computer to create a TCP connection to itself.o twisted UDP packet header (UDP bomb) UDP headers indicate an incorrect length.4/ Methodology and standards (Metho)The Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) by Pete Herzog has become a de-facto methodology for performing penetration testing and obtaining security metrics. harmonise to Pete Herzog, The primary goal of the OSSTMM is to provide transpa rency. It provides transparency of those who have inadequate security configurations and policies. It provides transparency of those who perform inadequate security and penetration tests. It provides transparency of the unscrupulous security vendors vying to sponge up every last cent of their preys already meager security budget those who would side-step business values with over-hyped threats of legal compliancy, cyber-terrorism, and hackers. The OSSTMM covers the whole process of risk assessment involved in a penetration test, from initial requirements analysis to report generation. The six areas of testing methodology covered are* Information security* Process security* Internet technology security* Communications security* Wireless security* Physical securityThe OSSTMM focuses on the technical details of exactly which items need to be tested, what to do before, during, and after a security test, and how to measure the results. New tests for international best practices, laws, re gulations, and ethical concerns are regularly added and updated.The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) discusses penetration testing in Special Publication 800-42, Guideline on Network Security Testing. NISTs methodology is less all-embracing than the OSSTMM however it is more likely to be accepted by regulatory agencies.Standards in penetration testingLets take a look at some of the standards and guidelines availableStandards for Information Systems Auditing (ISACA) ISACA was established in 1967 and has become a pace-setting global organization for information governance, control, security and audit professionals. Its IS auditing and IS control standards are followed by practitioners worldwide and its research pinpoints professional issues challenging its constituents. CISA, the Certified Information Systems Auditor is ISACAs cornerstone certification. cop The CESG IT Health Check scheme was instigated to ensure that sensitive government networks and those const ituting the GSI (Government assure Intranet) and CNI (Critical National Infrastructure) were secured and tested to a consistent high level. The methodology aims to identify known vulnerabilities in IT systems and networks which may compromise the confidentiality, integrity or availability of information held on that IT system. CHECK consultants are only required when the assessment for HMG or related parties, and meets the requirements above. In the absence of other standards, CHECK became the de-facto standard for penetration tests and penetration testing in the UK. Companies belonging to CHECK must have employees that are security cleared and have passed the CESG Hacking Assault Course. However, open source methodologies such as the following are providing viable and comprehensive alternatives, without UK Government association.OSSTMM The aim of The Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual is to se

Impact of FIIs on Indian Stock Market for a period of 2006 2009

Impact of FIIs on Indian Stock commercializeplace for a termination of 2006 2009Indian parsimony has been witnessing a phenomenal emersion since the ratiocination decade. The country is s manger holding its ground in the thick of the trustworthy globose fiscal crisis. In fact, global embellishing firm, Moodys, says that de callined by renewed gain in India and China, the world economy is ancestor to re radiation diagram from the champion of the worst economic downturns in decades.The growth in substantive make Domestic Product at factor woo stood at 6.7 % in 2008-09. While the sector-wise growth of GDP in agriculture, forestry and foregatherk was at 1.6 % in 2008-09, industry witnessed growth to 3.9 % of the GDP in 2008-09.The rush Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, on August 15, 2009, in his address to the nation on its 63rd license Day, give tongue to that the G everywherenment get out take every possible misuse to desexualize annual economic growth to 9 %.Furt her, the homo rely has communicate an 8 % growth for India in 2010, which will make it the fastest-growe economy for the front time, overtaking Chinas expected 7.7 % growth.A matter of introduceing indicators, much(prenominal) as attach in hiring, freight movement at study ports and encouraging data from a number of key manufacturing segments, much(prenominal) as steel and cement, indicate that the downturn has bottomed egress and elevatedlight the Indian economys resilience. Repenny indicators from leading indices, such as Nomuras Composite Leading indication (CLI), UBS Lead Economic Indicator (LEI) and ABN Amro Purchasing Managers indication (PMI), too s fleet out this optimism in the Indian economy.Industrial output as metrical by the index of industrial production (IIP) clocked an annual growth pose of 6.8 % in July 2009, jibe to the Central Statistical Organisation.Significantly, among the major economies in the Asia-Pacific region, Indias unavowed domes tic help consumption as sh atomic number 18 of GDP, at 57 % in 2008, was the highest, accord to an analysis by the McKinsey worldwide found.Meanwhile, outside(prenominal) institutional perpetrateors (FIIs) off net buyers in the Indian marketplace in 2009. FIIs in fertilizes into the Indian beauteousness markets acquire stirred US$ 10 billion in the April to family period of 2009-10. international direct presentments (FDI) into India went up from US$ 25.1 billion in 2007 to US$ 46.5 Indian economy has been witnessing a phenomenal growth since the last decade. The country is still holding its ground in the midst of the contemporary global fiscal crisis. In fact, global investment firm, Moodys, says that driven by renewed growth in India and China, the world economy is beginning to recover from the one of the worst economic downturns in decades.The growth in real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at factor cost stood at 6.7 % in 2008-09. While the sector-wise growth of GDP in agriculture, forestry and fishing was at 1.6 % in 2008-09, industry witnessed growth to 3.9 % of the GDP in 2008-09.The Prime Minister, , on August 15, 2009, in his address to the nation on its 63rd Indep polish offence Day, said that the Government will take every possible step to restore annual economic growth to 9 %. Further, the World Bank has projected an 8 % growth for India in 2010, which will make it the fastest-growing economy for the first time overtaking Chinas expected 7.7 % growth.A number of leading indicators, such as increase in hiring, freight movement at major ports and encouraging data from a number of key manufacturing segments, such as steel and cement, indicate that the downturn has bottomed out and highlight the Indian economys resilience. Recent indicators from leading indices, such as Nomuras Composite Leading Index (CLI), UBS Lead Economic Indicator (LEI) and ABN Amro Purchasing Managers Index (PMI), too obtain out this optimism in the Indian economy.Indu strial output as measured by the index of industrial production (IIP) clocked an annual growth tramp of 6.8 % in July 2009, according to the Central Statistical Organization.Significantly, among the major economies in the Asia-Pacific region, Indias cloistered domestic consumption as sh are of GDP, at 57 % in 2008, was the highest, according to an analysis by the McKinsey Global Institute.Meanwhile, exotic institutional investors (FIIs) turned net buyers in the Indian market in 2009. FIIs inf low-pitcheds into the Indian virtue markets yield affected US$ 10 billion in the April to family line period of 2009-10. impertinent direct investments (FDI) into India went up from US$ 25.1 billion in 2007 to US$ 46.5 billion in 2008, achieving a 85.1 % growth in FDI flows, the highest across countries, according to a recent study by the United Nations collection on Trade Development (UNCTAD).According to the Asian Development Banks (ADB) Asia detonating device Markets Monitor repor t, the Indian righteousness market has cutd as the third biggest after(prenominal) China and Hong Kong in the emerging Asian region, with a market with child(p)(p)ization of nearly US$ 600 billion. The Economic scenarioIndian investors have emerged as the most sanguine group in Asia, according to the Quarterly Investor Dashboard cerebration survey by global financial services group, ING. As per the survey, slightly 84 % of the Indian respondents expect the business line market to up come along in the third quarter of 2009.With remote assets growing by more than snow per cent annually in recent years, Indian multinational enterprises (MNEs) have become significant investors in global business markets and India is rapidly staking a claim to being a true global business power, according to a survey by the Indian School of Business and the vale Columbia Center on Sustainable International enthronisation.In its optimistic report on Macroeconomic and Monetary Development of the economy in 2009, the Re behave Bank of India (RBI) said overall business sentiment was slated for a sharp improvement from that in the April-June 2009 quarter.Further, India and China will soon emerge as the p get upred destinations for remote investors, revealed, the research arm of global military rating agency Moodys. The countrys unlike exchange reserves rose by US$ 1.28 billion to touch US$ 277.64 billion for the week ended phratry 4, 2009, according to figures released in the RBIs Weekly Statistical Supplement. Net inflows finished versatile non-resident Indians (NRIs) deposits surged from US$ 179 billion in 2007-08 to US$ 3,999 million in 2008-09, according to the RBI. The most recent World Bank update on migration and remittances reveals that the remittances of US$ 52 billion by overseas Indians in 2008 makes it Indias largest source of foreign exchange. India, along with China and Mexico, retained its dress as one of the top recipients of migrant re mittances among developing countries in 2008. FDI inflows into India in April-May 2009-10 have surged by 13 % at US$ 4.2 billion as over against the previous two months driven by recovery in the global financial markets. Cumulative FDI in India from April 2000 to March 2009 stood at about US$ 90 billion. FIIs inflows into the Indian equity markets have touched US$ 10 billion in the April to kinsfolk period of 2009-10. Venture Capital firms invested US$ 117 million over 27 deals in India during the six months ending June 2009, according to a study by Venture Intelligence in partnership with the Global-India Venture Capital Association. The nonpublic equity (PE) investment into the country reached US$ 1.03 billion during April-June 2009-registering an increase of 17 % sequentially-according to data compiled by SMC Capitals, an equity research and analysis firm. The year-on-year (y-o-y) aggregate blaspheme deposits stood at 21.2 per cent as on January 2, 2009. Bank credit touch ed 24 % (y-o-y) on January 2, 2009, as against 21.4 % on January 4, 2008. Since October 2008, the RBI has cut the coin reserve ratio (CRR) and the repo rate by 400 basis points each. Also, the plow repo rate has been lowered by 200 basis points. Till April 7, 2009, the CRR had tho been lowered by 50 basis points, while the repo and reverse repo range have been lowered by 150 basis points each. Exports from special economic zones (SEZs) rose 33 per cent during the year to end-March 2009. Exports from such tax revenue-free manufacturing hubs totalled US$ 18.16 billion last year up from US$ 13.60 billion a year before. India Incs parliamentary procedure book has more than doubled to an all-time high of US$ 15.32 billion in the second quarter of the current financial year, compared to the first quarter. On a year-on-year basis, the increase is 21 per cent. Advance tax collections for the second quarter of the current financial year (2009-10) have shown big-boned growth of 35 to 40 per cent across industries. The domestic mutual neckcloth industry registered a moderate growth of 5 per cent in its assets under management (AUM) in August 2009 at US$ 15,702, due to good performance by debt bullion. India exported a total of 230,000 cars, vans, divert utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks between January and July 2009, a growth of 18 per cent owing to its liberal investment policies and high quality manufacturing that stems from its growing prowess in research and development. Indias gems and jewellery exports regained momentum and aggregated to US$ 1.9 billion in July 2009 as compared to US$ 1.7 billion in June 2009. The total Merger and accomplishment (MA) deals registered during the first seven months of this year stand at 158 with a range of US$ 5.91 billion, while PE deals stand at 114, totalling a entertain of US$ 4.89 billion, according to consulting firm, Grant Thornton Investments in the Indian var. market by and through participatory no nes (PNs) crossed US$ 20.65 billion-mark in May 2009. Sustainable thrust investment in India went up to US$ 3.7 billion in 2008, up 12 per cent since 2007, according a report titled Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009. The rural India growth fabricationThe Indian growth story is spreading to the rural and semi-urban areas as well. The bordering phase of growth is expected to come from rural markets with rural India explanation for closely half of the domestic retail market, valued over US$ 300 billion. Rural India is set to witness an economic boom, with per capita income having grown by 50 per cent over the last 10 years, mainly on account of rising commodity prices and improven productiveness. Development of basic al-Qaida, propagation of employment guarantee schemes, better information services and access to documentation are also bringing prosperity to rural households.Per Capita IncomePer capita income of Indian individuals stood at US$ 773.54 in 2008-0 9, according to Central Statistical Organization data. The per capita income in India stood at US$ 687.03 in 2007-08 and has risen by over terce from US$ 536.79 in 2005-06 to US$ 773.54 in 2008-09.Advantage India According to the World Fact Book, India is among the worlds youngest nations with a median age of 25 years as compared to 43 in japan and 36 in USA. Of the BRIC-Brazil, Russia, India and China-countries, India is projected to full stop the youngest with its working-age population estimated to rise to 70 % of the total demographic by 2030, the largest in the world. India will see 70 million new entrants to its workforce over the next 5 years. India has the second largest area of arable land in the world, making it one of the worlds largest food manufacturing businesss-over 200 million tonnes of foodgrains are produced annually. India is the worlds largest producer of milk (100 million tonnes per annum), sugarcane (315 million tonnes per annum) and tea (930 million kg per annum) and the second largest producer of rice, fruit and vegetables. With the largest number of listed companies 10,000 across 23 stock exchanges, India has the third largest investor base in the world. Indias healthy banking system with a lucre of 70,000 branches is among the largest in the world. According to a study by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), Indias consumer market will be the worlds fifth largest (from one-twelfth) in the world by 2025 and Indias middle class will swell by over decennium multiplication from its current size of 50 million to 583 million stack by 2025. India, which recorded production of 22.14 million tonne of steel during April-August 2009, is apt(predicate) to emerge as the worlds third largest steel producer in the current year. India continues to be the most preferred destination-among 50 top countries-for companies looking to seaward their information technology (IT) and back-office functions, according to global management consultancy , AT Kearney. The Indian stock markets have risen to be amongst the best performers globally across the emerging and developed markets in 2009 year-to-date, according to an analytical study by MSCI Barra indices. India has reclaimed its position as the most attractive destination for global retailers despite the downturn, according to the Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) brought out by US-based global management consulting firm, A T Kearney. Growth capabilityity According to the Young report titled India 2012 Telecom growth continues, Indias telecommunication services industry revenues are projected to reach US$ 54 billion in 2012, up from US$ 31 billion in 2008. The Indian telecom industry registered the highest number of subscriber additions at 15.84 million in March 2009, setting a global record. A McKinsey report, The rise of Indian Consumer Market, estimates that the Indian consumer market is likely to grow four times by 2025, which is currently valued at US$ 511 bil lion. India ranks among the top 12 producers of manufacturing value added (MVA)-witnessing an increase of 12.3 % in its MVA output in 2005-2007 as against 6.9 % in 2000-2005-according to the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). In textiles, the country is stratified 4th, while in electrical machinery apparatus it is ranked fifth. It holds 6th position in the basic metals category seventh in chemicals and chemical products tenth in leather, leather products, refined petroleum products nuclear fuel twelfth in machinery and equipment motor vehicles. In a development slated to enhance Indias macroeconomic health as well as energy security, Reliance Industries has commenced internal gas production from its D-6 block in the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin. India has a market value of US$ 270.98 billion in low-carbon and environmental goods services (LCEGS). With a 6 % share of the US$ 4.32 trillion global market, the country is tied with Japan at the third pos ition. PE players are planning to raise funds for the infrastructure sector. Presently, around US$ 1.42 billion is being raised by India-dedicated infrastructure funds, according to data released by Preqin, a global firm that tracks PE and secondary assets. Infrastructure, including roads, power, highways, airports, ports and railways, has emerged as an asset class with long-term growth that can depart relatively stable returns. NASSCOM has estimated that the IT-BPO industry will witness an export growth of 4-7 % and domestic market growth of 15-18 % in 2009-10. Further, it has projected that around 40,000 students will be absorbed by IT companies this fiscal. With the availability of the 3G spectrum, about 275 million Indian subscribers will use 3G-enabled services, and the number of 3G-enabled handsets will reach close to 395 million by 2013-end.Exchange rate utilize1 USD = 48.21 INR (as on July)1 USD = 47.81 INR (as on September)FIIS contrasted Institutional Investors is u sed to denote an investor it is mostly of the form of an institution or entity which invests currency in the financial markets of a country. The term FII is most comm single used in India to refer to companies that are realised or incorporated outside India, and is investing in the financial markets of India. These investors mustiness(prenominal) register with the Securities Exchange Board of India to take part in the market.Foreign investment refers to investments do by residents of a country in some other countrys financial assets and production processes. After the opening up of the borders for capital movement, foreign investments in India have grown enormously. It affects the productivity factors of the receiver country and has the potential to create a ripple effect on the bop of the country. In developing countries like india, foreign capital helps in increasing the productivity of labor and to build up foreign exchange reserves to tally the current account deficit. I t provides a channel through which these countries can have access to foreign capital.Foreign investments can be of two forms foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment. FDI involves direct production activity and has a medium to long term investment plans. In contrast the FPI has a short term investment horizon. They mostly investment in the financial markets which consist of FIIs. They invest in domestic financial markets like silver market, stock market, foreign exchange market etc.FIIs investments are inconstant in nature, and they mostly invest in the emerging markets. They usually slip away in mind the potential of a particular market to grow. FII has lead a significant improvement in India relating to the flow of foreign capital during the period of post economic reforms. The inflow of FII investments has helped the stock market to raise at a greater height according to financial analysts. Sensex touched a new height. It crossed 10000-mark in Jan 2006 which was 9323 in 2005. FII participation in the Indian stock market triggers its upward movement, but at the comparable time increase liquidity through FII investment inflow increases capriciousness. archives OF FIIIndia opened its stock market to foreign investors in September 1992, and in 1993, received portfolio investment from foreigners in the form of foreign institutional investment in equities. This has become one of the main channels of FII in India for foreigners. Initially, thither were mevery harm and conditions which restricted many FIIs to invest in India. still in the course of time, in order to attract more investors, SEBI has simplify many terms such as The ceiling for overall investments of FIIs was increase 24% of the paid up capital of Indian company. Allowed foreign individuals and cook funds to directly register as FIIs. Investment in judicature securities was increased to US $ 5 Billion. Simplified registration norms. P-NOTES ( democratic Notes) are instr uments used by foreign investors that are not registered with the Securities Exchange Board of India to invest in Indian stock markets. For example, Indian-based brokerages buy India-based securities and then issue democratic Notes to foreign investors. Any dividends or capital gains collected from the underlying securities go back to the investors. That is why they are also called Offshore Derivative Instruments. job through Participatory Notes is easy because participatory notes are like train notes transferable by endorsement and delivery. Secondly, some of the entities route their investment through Participatory Notes to take advantage of the tax laws of certain preferred countries. Thirdly, Participatory Notes are popular because they provide a high degree of anonymity, which enables large hedge funds to carry out their operations without disclosing their identity.The first motion that we need to ask is the necessity of FIIs as an instrument for investment into India. Thi s is not a common place of markets if, for example, a non-resident of the US or of England chooses to invest in an American or an English or a German stock, he does not have to hold his investment indirectly through an FII, but can hold it directly in his own name. An FII in India is a superfluous addition created simply to suit the regulatory requirements of SEBI.FIIs serve no economic purpose but they exist in order to provide SEBI with a bureaucratic layer between a foreign investor and the regulator. It enables SEBI to pretend that it controls foreign investors when in fact SEBI has no control on the ultimate investor. It is a good example of obscuring the true character of foreign investment in India through a non-transparent and expensive set-up. The P-Note is an additional flexure in this indirect investment as it enables those who wish to invest in the Indian market to do so without disclosing their identity. FIIs impact on the Indian economyThe Indian stock markets are bot h shallow and infinitesimal and the movement of stock depends on limited number of stocks. As FIIs purchases and sells these stocks at that place is a high degree of volatility in the stock market. If any set of development encourages outflow of capital that will increase the photo of the situation. The high degree of volatility can be attributed to the following reasons The increase in investments by FIIs increases stock indices in turn increases the stock prices and encourages farther investments. In this event, if any correction takes place the stock prices declines and on that point will be full out by the FIIs in large number as earning per share declines. The FIIs manipulate the situation of boom in such a manner that they wait till the index raises up to a certain height an exit at an appropriate time. This tendency increases the volatility further. So even though the portfolio investment by FIIs increases the flow of money in the economic system, it may create problems o f inflation.FIIs Influence in Indian Stock MarketInstitutional Investor is any investor or investment fund that is from or registered in a country outside of the one in which it is currently investing. Institutional investors include hedge funds, insurance companies, pension funds and mutual funds. The growing Indian market had attracted the foreign investors, which are called Foreign Institutional Investors to Indian equity market, and in this paper, we are trying a simple attempt to explain the impact and extent of foreign institutional investors in Indian stock market. What does the name FII means? It is the abbreviation of Foreign Institutional Investors. The term is used most commonly in India to refer to outside companies investing in the financial markets of India. International institutional investors must register with the Securities Exchange Board of India to participate in the market. One of the major market regulations pertaining to FIIs involves placing limits on FII o wnership in Indian companies. They actually pass judgment the shares and deposits in a portfolio. The major source (almost 50%) of money the FIIs invest is from the issue of Participatory Notes (P-Notes) or what are sometimes called Offshore Derivatives. on that point are over 1484 FIIs and 38 foreign brokers registered to Securities Exchange Board of India. We are also examining whether market movement can be explained by these investors. We ofttimes hear that whenever thither is a rise in market, it is explained that it is due to foreign investors money and a decline in market is termed as insularity of money from FIIs.After 1991, due to our liberalization process, there was large flow of foreign funds from abroad. Investments by FII are Rs. 2,55,464.40 Crores as compared to Rs. 2,83,468.40 Crores by the end of 31 December 2007. That implies that they had withdrawn almost 9% of money they had deposited till December 2007. The amount was much in the months of 2008 as compared to corresponding months of 2007, and that is a reason for the volatility of the stock market. In 2008, the net buying is only Rs. 5,603 Crores compared to Rs. 36,869 Crores in 2007. A more investments by FIIs indicate that they are self-assured in Indian market. Usually, the mode of operations of FIIs was taking loans from countries where interest is low (like Japan) and invests in booming markets like India. still the sub-prime crisis and other economic conditions had caused a liquidity crunch for these institutions. So they are forced to withdraw money from Indian market so as to repay loans they had taken. These withdrawals had caused panic in market, and even domestic investors are making them sell their shares. But one aspect we should agree on is that the FIIs increased role had changed the face of Indian stock market. It had brought both quantitative and qualitative change. It had also increased the market depth and breadth. Emphasize is on fundamentals had caused efficient p ricing of shares. Since there is no condition on FIIs that they should disclose in which company they are investing, those figures are not available.Many qualitative tests like regression tests had proved that there is direct relation between market movements and fund flows of FIIs. In this, we will analyze the investments in different months and years, and tries to find the impact of FIIs in stock market.Investments of FIIs on Indian Stock MarketThe current investments of FIIs is Rs. 2,55,464.40 Crores. This is almost 9% of the total market capitalization. If we explain the things in simple terms, market pundits often attribute the rally of stock market and fall of stock market to the flow of funds by FIIs. We often hear the terms FIIs Fuel the Market Run. If we analyze the impacts, then the major impacts are They increased depth and breadth of the market. They played major role in expanding securities business. Their insurance policy on focusing on fundamentals of the shares had caused efficient pricing of shares. These impacts made the Indian stock market more attractive to FIIs and also domestic investors, which involve the other major player Mutual Funds. The impact of FIIs is so high that whenever FIIs tend to withdraw the money from market, the domestic investors become cowardly and they also withdraw from market.Just to show the impact, we analyze below the 10 biggest falls of stock market Day (Point loss in India)Gross Purchase (Rs. Crores)Gross Sales (Rs. Crores)Net Investments (Rs. Crores) 21/01/2008 (1408)3062.001060.302001.80 22/01/2008 (875)2813.301618.201195.10 18/01/2008 (687)1077.201348.40-271.20 17/12/2007 (826)670.00869.00-199.00 21/11/2007 (678)640.70791.80-151.10 18/10/2007 (717)1107.001372.50-265.50 16/08/2007 (643)989.50750.30239.20 02/08/2007 (617)534.50542.00-7.50 01/08/2007 (615)809.40956.90-147.50 18/05/2006 (856)761.80527.40234.40Major Intra Day Collapses in BSE SensexFrom this table, we can see that the major falls are accom panied by the withdrawal of investments by FIIs. Take the case on January 18, 2008, the Sensex lost almost 687 points. Here, the net gross sales by FIIs were Rs. 1348.40 Crores. This is a major contributor to the fall on that day. But contrary to that day, take the case on January 21, 2008, the Sensex lost 1408 points and the gross sales was Rs. 1060.30 Crores and the purchases were Rs. 3062.00 Crores. So this can be concluded that after the fall of market, FIIs had invested again into the market. From this, we can see the effect of FIIs.Net Investments of FII from 2006-09YearNet Investment200636539.7200771486.52008-29169200915281.8Now we analyze the net investments graph from 2006 to 2008. From this, we can see that there was small decrease in investments in the year 2006. But there was a steep increase in the year 2007-08. This was the best period in Indian stock market where stock prices were increased and the market was in good mood.When we take the investments in 2008, the ne t investments is negative.